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Biomimetics or biomimicry is the emulation of the models, systems, and elements of nature for the purpose of solving complex human problems. A closely related field is bionics. Living organisms have evolved well-adapted structures and materials over geological time through natural selection. Biomimetics has given rise to new technologies inspired by biological solutions at macro and nanoscales. Humans have looked at nature for answers to problems throughout our existence.
Nature has solved engineering problems such as self-healing abilities, environmental exposure tolerance and resistance, hydrophobicity , self-assembly, and harnessing solar energy. One of the early examples of biomimicry was the study of birds to enable human flight. Although never successful in creating a "flying machine", Leonardo da Vinci — was a keen observer of the anatomy and flight of birds, and made numerous notes and sketches on his observations as well as sketches of "flying machines".
During the s the American biophysicist and polymath Otto Schmitt developed the concept of "biomimetics". Biophysics is not so much a subject matter as it is a point of view. It is an approach to problems of biological science utilizing the theory and technology of the physical sciences. Conversely, biophysics is also a biologist's approach to problems of physical science and engineering, although this aspect has largely been neglected.
In Jack E. Steele defined bionics as "the science of systems which have some function copied from nature, or which represent characteristics of natural systems or their analogues". Let us consider what bionics has come to mean operationally and what it or some word like it I prefer biomimetics ought to mean in order to make good use of the technical skills of scientists specializing, or rather, I should say, despecializing into this area of research.
In , Schmitt used the term "biomimetic" in the title one of his papers,  and by it had found its way into Webster's Dictionary , bionics entered the same dictionary earlier in as "a science concerned with the application of data about the functioning of biological systems to the solution of engineering problems".
Bionic took on a different connotation when Martin Caidin referenced Jack Steele and his work in the novel Cyborg which later resulted in the television series The Six Million Dollar Man and its spin-offs.
The term bionic then became associated with "the use of electronically operated artificial body parts" and "having ordinary human powers increased by or as if by the aid of such devices".
The term biomimicry appeared as early as Biomimicry is defined in the book as a "new science that studies nature's models and then imitates or takes inspiration from these designs and processes to solve human problems".
Benyus suggests looking to Nature as a "Model, Measure, and Mentor" and emphasizes sustainability as an objective of biomimicry. Biomimetics could in principle be applied in many fields. Because of the diversity and complexity of biological systems, the number of features that might be imitated is large. Biomimetic applications are at various stages of development from technologies that might become commercially usable to prototypes.
Aircraft wing design  and flight techniques  are being inspired by birds and bats. The aerodynamics of streamlined design of improved Japanese high speed train Shinkansen Series were modelled after the beak of kingfisher bird. Biorobots based on the physiology and methods of locomotion of animals include BionicKangaroo which moves like a kangaroo, saving energy from one jump and transferring it to its next jump. Living beings have adapted to a constantly changing environment during evolution through mutation, recombination, and selection.
The 21st century has seen a ubiquitous waste of energy due to inefficient building designs, in addition to the over-utilization of energy during the operational phase of its life cycle.
Biomimetic architecture is one of these multi-disciplinary approaches to sustainable design that follows a set of principles rather than stylistic codes, going beyond using nature as inspiration for the aesthetic components of built form but instead seeking to use nature to solve problems of the building's functioning and saving energy.
The term Biomimetic architecture refers to the study and application of construction principles which are found in natural environments and species, and are translated into the design of sustainable solutions for architecture.
Using nature as a measure refers to using an ecological standard of measuring sustainability, and efficiency of man-made innovations, while the term mentor refers to learning from natural principles and using biology as an inspirational source. Biomorphic architecture, also referred to as Bio-decoration,  on the other hand, refers to the use of formal and geometric elements found in nature, as a source of inspiration for aesthetic properties in designed architecture, and may not necessarily have non-physical, or economic functions.
A historic example of biomorphic architecture dates back to Egyptian, Greek and Roman cultures, using tree and plant forms in the ornamentation of structural columns. Within Biomimetic architecture, two basic procedures can be identified, namely, the bottom-up approach biology push and top-down approach technology pull.
In the bottom-up approach, the starting point is a new result from basic biological research promising for biomimetic implementation. In the top-down approach, biomimetic innovations are sought for already existing developments that have been successfully established on the market.
The cooperation focuses on the improvement or further development of an existing product. Researchers studied the termite 's ability to maintain virtually constant temperature and humidity in their termite mounds in Africa despite outside temperatures that vary from 1. Researchers initially scanned a termite mound and created 3-D images of the mound structure, which revealed construction that could influence human building design.
Scientists have imitated the porous nature of mound walls by designing a facade with double panels that was able to reduce heat gained by radiation and increase heat loss by convection in cavity between the two panels. Significant transfer of heat between the building's external wall surface and the air flowing over it was observed. Green wall facilitates additional natural cooling via evaporation, respiration and transpiration in plants. The damp plant substrate further support the cooling effect.
Scientists in Shanghai University were able to replicate the complex microstructure of clay-made conduit network in the mound to mimic the excellent humidity control in mounds. They proposed a porous humidity control material HCM using Sepiolite and calcium chloride with water vapor adsorption-desorption content at grams per meter squared.
Calcium chloride is a desiccant and improves the water vapor adsorption-desorption property of the Bio-HCM. The proposed bio-HCM has a regime of interfiber mesopores which acts as a mini reservoir. The flexural strength of the proposed material was estimated to be In structural engineering, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology EPFL has incorporated biomimetic characteristics in an adaptive deployable "tensegrity" bridge. The bridge can carry out self-diagnosis and self-repair.
Analysis of the elastic deformation happening when a pollinator lands on the sheath-like perch part of the flower Strelitzia reginae known as Bird-of-Paradise flower has inspired architects and scientists from the University of Freiburg and University of Stuttgart to create hingeless shading systems that can react to their environment. These bio-inspired products are sold under the name Flectofin.
Other hingeless bioinspired systems include Flectofold. There is a great need for new structural materials that are light weight but offer exceptional combinations of stiffness , strength, and toughness. Such materials would need to be manufactured into bulk materials with complex shapes at high volume and low cost and would serve a variety of fields such as construction, transportation, energy storage and conversion.
However, natural materials with complex and hierarchical material gradients that span from nano - to macro-scales are both strong and tough. Generally, most natural materials utilize limited chemical components but complex material architectures that give rise to exceptional mechanical properties.
Understanding the highly diverse and multi functional biological materials and discovering approaches to replicate such structures will lead to advanced and more efficient technologies. Bone , nacre abalone shell , teeth, the dactyl clubs of stomatopod shrimps and bamboo are great examples of damage tolerant materials.
Nacre exhibits similar mechanical properties however with rather simpler structure. Nacre shows a brick and mortar like structure with thick mineral layer 0. However, numerous processing techniques have been proposed for producing nacre like materials.
Biomorphic mineralization is a technique that produces materials with morphologies and structures resembling those of natural living organisms by using bio-structures as templates for mineralization.
Compared to other methods of material production, biomorphic mineralization is facile, environmentally benign and economic. Recent studies demonstrated production of cohesive and self supporting macroscopic tissue constructs that mimic living tissues by printing tens of thousands of heterologous picoliter droplets in software-defined, 3D millimeter-scale geometries. Various established and novel additive manufacturing technologies like PolyJet printing, direct ink writing, 3D magnetic printing, multi-material magnetically assisted 3D printing and magnetically-assisted slip casting have also been utilized to mimic the complex micro-scale architectures of natural materials and provide huge scope for future research.
Spider silk is tougher than Kevlar used in bulletproof vests. New ceramics that exhibit giant electret hysteresis have also been realized. In general in biological systems, self healing occurs via chemical signals released at the site of fracture which initiate a systemic response that transport repairing agents to the fracture site thereby promoting autonomic healing.
The researchers applied a thin soft cellular polyurethane foam coating on the inside of a fabric substrate, which closes the crack if the membrane is punctured with a spike. The self healing properties may also be achieved by the breaking and reforming of hydrogen bonds upon cyclical stress of the material.
Surfaces that recreate properties of shark skin are intended to enable more efficient movement through water. Efforts have been made to produce fabric that emulates shark skin. Surface tension biomimetics are being researched for technologies such as hydrophobic or hydrophilic coatings and microactuators.
Some amphibians, such as tree and torrent frogs and arboreal salamanders , are able to attach to and move over wet or even flooded environments without falling. This kind of organisms have toe pads which are permanently wetted by mucus secreted from glands that open into the channels between epidermal cells. They attach to mating surfaces by wet adhesion and they are capable of climbing on wet rocks even when water is flowing over the surface. Marine mussels can stick easily and efficiently to surfaces underwater under the harsh conditions of the ocean.
Mussels use strong filaments to adhere to rocks in the inter-tidal zones of wave-swept beaches, preventing them from being swept away in strong sea currents. Mussel foot proteins attach the filaments to rocks, boats and practically any surface in nature including other mussels.
These proteins contain a mix of amino acid residues which has been adapted specifically for adhesive purposes. Researchers from the University of California Santa Barbara borrowed and simplified chemistries that the mussel foot uses to overcome this engineering challenge of wet adhesion to create copolyampholytes,  and one-component adhesive systems  with potential for employment in nanofabrication protocols.
Other research has proposed adhesive glue from mussels. Leg attachment pads of several animals, including many insects e. Attachment systems in these organisms have similar structures at their terminal elements of contact, known as setae.
Such biological examples have offered inspiration in order to produce climbing robots,  boots and tape. Biomimetic materials are gaining increasing attention in the field of optics and photonics. There are still little known bioinspired or biomimetic products involving the photonic properties of plants or animals. However, understanding how nature designed such optical materials from biological resources is worth pursuing and might lead to future commercial products.
For instance, the chiral self-assembly of cellulose inspired by the Pollia condensata berry has been exploited to make optically active films. The structural colours can potentially be everlasting and have more vibrant colour than the ones obtained from chemical absorption of light. Pollia condensata is not the only fruit showing a structural coloured skin; iridescence is also found in berries of other species such as Margaritaria nobilis. However, the light which is reflected from the skin of these fruits is not polarised unlike the one arising from man-made replicates obtained from the self-assembly of cellulose nanocrystals into helicoids, which only reflect left-handed circularly polarised light.
The fruit of Elaeocarpus angustifolius also show structural colour that come arises from the presence of specialised cells called iridosomes which have layered structures. In plants, multi layer structures can be found either at the surface of the leaves on top of the epidermis , such as in Selaginella willdenowii  or within specialized intra-cellular organelles , the so-called iridoplasts, which are located inside the cells of the upper epidermis. Structural colours have also been found in several algae, such as in the red alga Chondrus crispus Irish Moss.
Structural coloration produces the rainbow colours of soap bubbles , butterfly wings and many beetle scales. Morpho butterfly wings are structurally coloured to produce a vibrant blue that does not vary with angle.
Industrial Plant Engineering Reviewer by Capote & Mandawe
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Home Login Register Search. Report this link. Jose R. This project was proposed for the development of a reviewer manual in Mechanical Engineering ME with theories and 5, solved problems and answered questions elements for the computerized mechanical engineering licensure examination. Problems and questions were developed and formulated based on the type of past examinations given by the Board of Mechanical Engineering Examiners. Solved problems and answered questions in the previous Licensure examinations are also included and presented in the reviewer manual. The manual is designed as a review material to be used by ME graduates who are preparing for the licensure examination and by ME graduating students who are taking in-house review program.
Climate change negatively affects all four pillars of food security: availability, access, utilisation and stability. Food availability may be reduced by negative climate change impacts on productivity of crops, livestock and fish, due, for instance, to increases in temperature and changes in rainfall patterns. Productivity is also negatively affected by increased pests and diseases, as well as changing distributions of pollinators under climate change. Food access and its stability may be affected through disruption of markets, prices, infrastructure, transport, manufacture, and retail, as well as direct and indirect changes in income and food purchasing power of low-income consumers. Food utilisation may be directly affected by climate change due to increases in mycotoxins in food and feed with rising temperatures and increased frequencies of extreme events, and indirectly through effects on health. Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations can increase yields at lower temperature increases, but tend to decrease protein content in many crops, reducing their nutritional values.
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Utilizing flyash, low grade limestone and additives in cement manufacturing through optimization of raw mix design for 40 cement plants. Achieving desired setting time and early strength through optimization of clinker quality, PSD and SO3 content in two cement plants. Increasing flyash content in PPC by percent through optimization studies. Carried out LCF studies resulting in : Rationalization of limestone consumption Estimating royalty payable to State Government Internal material audit in cement plantsOptical Microscope for micro-structural evaluation of clinker and rocks. Copper Slag from Sterlite Industries Ltd.
Biomimetics or biomimicry is the emulation of the models, systems, and elements of nature for the purpose of solving complex human problems. A closely related field is bionics.