File Name: eliade myth and reality .zip
- A Deeper Understanding of Myth: The Contribution of Mircea Eliade
- Myth and the Secret of Destiny: Mircea Eliade’s Creative Hermeneuticsand the Yorùbá Concept of Orí
- Eliade, Mircea - Myth and Reality (Harper & Row, 1963)
- Myth and Reality
Mythology , Symbolism. Nowadays myth is sometimes perceived as something opposed to reality — a fictional tale without connection to real life.
A Deeper Understanding of Myth: The Contribution of Mircea Eliade
He was a leading interpreter of religious experience, who established paradigms in religious studies that persist to this day.
His theory that hierophanies form the basis of religion, splitting the human experience of reality into sacred and profane space and time, has proved influential. His literary works belong to the fantastic and autobiographical genres. Early in his life, Eliade was a journalist and essayist, a disciple of Romanian far-right philosopher and journalist Nae Ionescu , and a member of the literary society Criterion.
Several times during the late s, Eliade publicly expressed his support for the Iron Guard , a fascist and antisemitic political organization [ citation needed ]. His political involvement at the time, as well as his other far right connections, were frequently criticised after World War II including by himself [ citation needed ]. Noted for his vast erudition, Eliade had fluent command of five languages Romanian , French , German , Italian , and English and a reading knowledge of three others Hebrew , Persian , and Sanskrit.
He was elected a posthumous member of the Romanian Academy. Eliade kept a particularly fond memory of his childhood and, later in life, wrote about the impact various unusual episodes and encounters had on his mind.
In one instance during the World War I Romanian Campaign , when Eliade was about ten years of age, he witnessed the bombing of Bucharest by German zeppelins and the patriotic fervor in the occupied capital at news that Romania was able to stop the Central Powers ' advance into Moldavia.
He described this stage in his life as marked by an unrepeatable epiphany. I practiced for many years [the] exercise of recapturing that epiphanic moment, and I would always find again the same plenitude. I would slip into it as into a fragment of time devoid of duration—without beginning, middle, or end. By this time I knew the world to which the drawing room belonged [ Robert Ellwood, a professor of religion who did his graduate studies under Mircea Eliade,  saw this type of nostalgia as one of the most characteristic themes in Eliade's life and academic writings.
As a child, Eliade was fascinated with the natural world, which formed the setting of his very first literary attempts,  as well as with Romanian folklore and the Christian faith as expressed by peasants. With a group of friends, he designed and sailed a boat on the Danube , from Tulcea to the Black Sea.
Instead, he became interested in natural science and chemistry , as well as the occult ,  and wrote short pieces on entomological subjects. His interest in the two writers led him to learn Italian and English in private, and he also began studying Persian and Hebrew.
Between and , he attended the University of Bucharest 's Faculty of Philosophy and Letters in , earning his diploma with a study on Early Modern Italian philosopher Tommaso Campanella. It was during his student years that Eliade met Nae Ionescu , who lectured in Logic , becoming one of his disciples and friends.
Eliade's scholarly works began after a long period of study in British India , at the University of Calcutta. Finding that the Maharaja of Kassimbazar sponsored European scholars to study in India, Eliade applied and was granted an allowance for four years, which was later doubled by a Romanian scholarship.
Before reaching the Indian subcontinent , Eliade also made a brief visit to Egypt. He studied the basics of Indian philosophy , and, in parallel, learned Sanskrit, Pali and Bengali under Dasgupta's direction.
In , while living with Dasgupta, Eliade fell in love with his host's daughter, Maitreyi Devi , later writing a barely disguised autobiographical novel Maitreyi also known as "La Nuit Bengali" or "Bengal Nights" , in which he claimed that he carried on a physical relationship with her.
Eliade received his PhD in , with a thesis on Yoga practices. He later recalled that the book was an early step for understanding not just Indian religious practices, but also Romanian spirituality. As one of the figures in the Criterion literary society — , Eliade's initial encounter with the traditional far right was polemical: the group's conferences were stormed by members of A. Cuza 's National-Christian Defense League , who objected to what they viewed as pacifism and addressed antisemitic insults to several speakers, including Sebastian;   in , he was among the signers of a manifesto opposing Nazi Germany 's state-enforced racism.
All I wish for is a deep change, a complete transformation. But, for God's sake, in any direction other than spirituality. They displayed his rejection of liberalism and the modernizing goals of the Wallachian revolution perceived as "an abstract apology of Mankind"  and "ape-like imitation of [Western] Europe" ,  as well as for democracy itself accusing it of "managing to crush all attempts at national renaissance",  and later praising Benito Mussolini 's Fascist Italy on the grounds that, according to Eliade, "[in Italy,] he who thinks for himself is promoted to the highest office in the shortest of times".
Eliade was especially dissatisfied with the incidence of unemployment among intellectuals, whose careers in state-financed institutions had been rendered uncertain by the Great Depression. Eliade decided to sue the Ministry of Education , asking for a symbolic compensation of 1 leu.
Nevertheless, by , he gave his intellectual support to the Iron Guard, in which he saw "a Christian revolution aimed at creating a new Romania",  and a group able "to reconcile Romania with God".
When Eliade began coughing blood in October , he was taken to a clinic in Moroeni. His office involved disseminating propaganda in favor of the Romanian state. He would later find a house in Cascais , at Rua da Saudade. In February , weeks after the bloody Legionary Rebellion was crushed by Antonescu, Iphigenia was staged by the National Theater Bucharest —the play soon raised doubts that it owed inspiration to the Iron Guard's ideology, and even that its inclusion in the program was a Legionary attempt at subversion.
He maintained a friendship with d'Ors, and met him again on several occasions after the war. Nina Eliade fell ill with uterine cancer and died during their stay in Lisbon , in late As the widower later wrote, the disease was probably caused by an abortion procedure she had undergone at an early stage of their relationship. At signs that the Romanian communist regime was about to take hold, Eliade opted not to return to the country.
On September 16, , he moved to France with his adopted daughter Giza. Together with Emil Cioran and other Romanian expatriates, Eliade rallied with the former diplomat Alexandru Busuioceanu , helping him publicize anti-communist opinion to the Western European public.
Beginning in , he wrote for the journal Critique , edited by French philosopher Georges Bataille. In October , he moved to the United States, settling in Chicago the following year. He was slowly rehabilitated at home beginning in the early s, under the rule of Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej.
During his later years, Eliade's fascist past was progressively exposed publicly, the stress of which probably contributed to the decline of his health. Eight days previously, he suffered a stroke while reading Emil Cioran 's Exercises of Admiration , and had subsequently lost his speech function. In his work on the history of religion, Eliade is most highly regarded for his writings on Alchemy ,  Shamanism , Yoga and what he called the eternal return —the implicit belief, supposedly present in religious thought in general, that religious behavior is not only an imitation of, but also a participation in, sacred events, and thus restores the mythical time of origins.
Eliade is known for his attempt to find broad, cross-cultural parallels and unities in religion, particularly in myths. Wendy Doniger , Eliade's colleague from until his death, has observed that "Eliade argued boldly for universals where he might more safely have argued for widely prevalent patterns. Robert Ellwood describes Eliade's approach to religion as follows. Eliade approaches religion by imagining an ideally "religious" person, whom he calls homo religiosus in his writings.
Eliade's theories basically describe how this homo religiosus would view the world. Instead, it means that religious behavior "says through its own language" that the world is as homo religiosus would see it, whether or not the real-life participants in religious behavior are aware of it. Eliade argues that "Yahweh is both kind and wrathful; the God of the Christian mystics and theologians is terrible and gentle at once.
Eliade's understanding of religion centers on his concept of hierophany manifestation of the Sacred —a concept that includes, but is not limited to, the older and more restrictive concept of theophany manifestation of a god.
The "profane" space of nonreligious experience can only be divided up geometrically: it has no "qualitative differentiation and, hence, no orientation [is] given by virtue of its inherent structure. In contrast to profane space, the site of a hierophany has a sacred structure to which religious man conforms himself. A hierophany amounts to a "revelation of an absolute reality, opposed to the non-reality of the vast surrounding expanse.
Eliade notes that, in traditional societies, myth represents the absolute truth about primordial time. Eliade argues that all myths are, in that sense, origin myths: "myth, then, is always an account of a creation. Many traditional societies believe that the power of a thing lies in its origin.
According to Eliade's theory, only the Sacred has value, only a thing's first appearance has value and, therefore, only the Sacred's first appearance has value.
Myth describes the Sacred's first appearance; therefore, the mythical age is sacred time,  the only time of value: "primitive man was interested only in the beginnings [ Eliade argues that traditional man attributes no value to the linear march of historical events: only the events of the mythical age have value. To give his own life value, traditional man performs myths and rituals. Because the Sacred's essence lies only in the mythical age, only in the Sacred's first appearance, any later appearance is actually the first appearance; by recounting or re-enacting mythical events, myths and rituals "re-actualize" those events.
Thus, argues Eliade, religious behavior does not only commemorate, but also participates in, sacred events:. In imitating the exemplary acts of a god or of a mythical hero, or simply by recounting their adventures, the man of an archaic society detaches himself from profane time and magically re-enters the Great Time, the sacred time.
Eliade called this concept the " eternal return " distinguished from the philosophical concept of "eternal return". Wendy Doniger noted that Eliade's theory of the eternal return "has become a truism in the study of religions.
Eliade attributes the well-known "cyclic" vision of time in ancient thought to belief in the eternal return. For instance, the New Year ceremonies among the Mesopotamians , the Egyptians , and other Near Eastern peoples re-enacted their cosmogonic myths.
Therefore, by the logic of the eternal return, each New Year ceremony was the beginning of the world for these peoples. According to Eliade, these peoples felt a need to return to the Beginning at regular intervals, turning time into a circle. Eliade argues that yearning to remain in the mythical age causes a "terror of history": traditional man desires to escape the linear succession of events which, Eliade indicated, he viewed as empty of any inherent value or sacrality.
Eliade suggests that the abandonment of mythical thought and the full acceptance of linear, historical time, with its "terror", is one of the reasons for modern man's anxieties. Eliade claims that many myths, rituals, and mystical experiences involve a "coincidence of opposites," or coincidentia oppositorum.
In fact, he calls the coincidentia oppositorum "the mythical pattern. According to Eliade, the coincidentia oppositorum' s appeal lies in "man's deep dissatisfaction with his actual situation, with what is called the human condition". Also, traditional man's dissatisfaction with the post-mythical age expresses itself as a feeling of being "torn and separate".
On the level of pre-systematic thought, the mystery of totality embodies man's endeavor to reach a perspective in which the contraries are abolished, the Spirit of Evil reveals itself as a stimulant of Good, and Demons appear as the night aspect of the Gods. Eliade acknowledges that not all religious behavior has all the attributes described in his theory of sacred time and the eternal return. The Zoroastrian , Jewish , Christian , and Muslim traditions embrace linear, historical time as sacred or capable of sanctification, while some Eastern traditions largely reject the notion of sacred time, seeking escape from the cycles of time.
Because they contain rituals, Judaism and Christianity necessarily—Eliade argues—retain a sense of cyclic time:. However, Judaism and Christianity do not see time as a circle endlessly turning on itself; nor do they see such a cycle as desirable, as a way to participate in the Sacred.
Instead, these religions embrace the concept of linear history progressing toward the Messianic Age or the Last Judgment , thus initiating the idea of "progress" humans are to work for a Paradise in the future.
The pre- Islamic Persian religion of Zoroastrianism, which made a notable "contribution to the religious formation of the West",  also has a linear sense of time.
According to Eliade, the Hebrews had a linear sense of time before being influenced by Zoroastrianism. The Indian religions of the East generally retain a cyclic view of time—for instance, the Hindu doctrine of kalpas. According to Eliade, most religions that accept the cyclic view of time also embrace it: they see it as a way to return to the sacred time. However, in Buddhism , Jainism , and some forms of Hinduism, the Sacred lies outside the flux of the material world called maya , or "illusion" , and one can only reach it by escaping from the cycles of time.
According to Eliade, Yoga techniques aim at escaping the limitations of the body, allowing the soul atman to rise above maya and reach the Sacred nirvana , moksha. Imagery of "freedom", and of death to one's old body and rebirth with a new body, occur frequently in Yogic texts, representing escape from the bondage of the temporal human condition. A recurrent theme in Eliade's myth analysis is the axis mundi , the Center of the World.
Myth and the Secret of Destiny: Mircea Eliade’s Creative Hermeneuticsand the Yorùbá Concept of Orí
Printed in the United States of A m erica. A ll rights re served. No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any manner whatsoever without written perm ission except in the case of brief quo tations embodied in critical articles and reviews. Appendix II. It is the thesis of World Perspectives that man is in the process of developing a new consciousness which, in spite of his apparent spiritual and moral captivity, can eventually lift the human race above and beyond the fear, ignorance, and isolation which beset it today. It is to this nascent consciousness, to this concept of man born out of a universe perceived through a fresh vision of reality, that World Perspectives is dedicated. Only those spiritual and intellectual leaders of our epoch who have a paternity in this extension of man's horizons are invited to participate in this Series : those who are aware of the truth that beyond the divisiveness among men there exists a primordial uni tive power since we are all bound together by a common hu manity more fundamental than any unity of dogma; those who recognize that the centrifugal force which has scattered and atom ized mankind must be replaced by an integrating structure and process capable of bestowing meaning and purpose on existence; those who realize that science itself, when not inhibited by the limitations of its own methodology, when chastened and humbled, commits man to an indeterminate range of yet undreamed conse quences that may flow from it.
The " eternal return " is an idea for interpreting religious behavior proposed by the historian Mircea Eliade ; it is a belief expressed through behavior sometimes implicitly, but often explicitly that one is able to become contemporary with or return to the " mythical age"—the time when the events described in one's myths occurred. This sharp distinction between the sacred and the profane is Eliade's trademark theory. According to Eliade, traditional man distinguishes two levels of existence: 1 the Sacred, and 2 the profane world. Here "the Sacred" can be God, gods, mythical ancestors, or any other beings who established the world's structure. To traditional man, things "acquire their reality, their identity, only to the extent of their participation in a transcendent reality". Hence, there is profane space, and there is sacred space.
Eliade, Mircea - Myth and Reality (Harper & Row, 1963)
The main peculiarity of M. According to Eliade, myth is one of the components of reality and is sacred and veridical for primitive people. In addition, members of primitive cultures distinguish myth from the fictional stories, which means they are able to differentiate truth from fantasies, and myths are always true.
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Myth and Reality
Mircea Eliade — was a Romanian-born historian of religion who did much to shape that discipline and make it an intellectual force in the twentieth century. Eliade graduated from the University of Bucharest in and then in — studied Indian philosophy at the University of Calcutta and yoga at an ashram in Rishikesh. Returning to Romania, he earned his Ph. Eliade joined the faculty of the University of Bucharest in , where he taught history of religion and Indian philosophy, as well as becoming a widely-read author of fiction and journalistic commentary in the s, something being spoken of as a major voice of the younger generation of Romanians. In those troubled times for Romania and Europe, toward the end of the decade, Eliade became involved in the rightist politics of the fascist Iron Guard movement; when the King, Carol II, Skip to main content Skip to table of contents.
He was a leading interpreter of religious experience, who established paradigms in religious studies that persist to this day. His theory that hierophanies form the basis of religion, splitting the human experience of reality into sacred and profane space and time, has proved influential. His literary works belong to the fantastic and autobiographical genres. Early in his life, Eliade was a journalist and essayist, a disciple of Romanian far-right philosopher and journalist Nae Ionescu , and a member of the literary society Criterion. Several times during the late s, Eliade publicly expressed his support for the Iron Guard , a fascist and antisemitic political organization [ citation needed ].
Сьюзан поспешила за ним, пытаясь увидеть его силуэт. Коммандер обогнул ТРАНСТЕКСТ и, приблизившись к люку, заглянул в бурлящую, окутанную паром бездну. Молча обернулся, бросил взгляд на погруженную во тьму шифровалку и, нагнувшись приподнял тяжелую крышку люка. Она описала дугу и, когда он отпустил руку, с грохотом закрыла люк. Шифровалка снова превратилась в затихшую черную пещеру. Скорее всего Северная Дакота попал в ловушку.
MYTH AND REALITY. MIRCEA ELIADE. I. I I. Translated from the French by Willard R. Trask. (>ii\. \j:J. HARPER & ROW, PUBLISHERS. New York and Evan ton.
- Именно это я и пыталась тебе втолковать. - Возможно, ничего страшного, - уклончиво сказал он, - но… - Да хватит. Ничего страшного - это глупая болтовня. То, что там происходит, серьезно, очень серьезно. Мои данные еще никогда меня не подводили и не подведут. - Она собиралась уже положить трубку, но, вспомнив, добавила: - Да, Джабба… ты говоришь, никаких сюрпризов, так вот: Стратмор обошел систему Сквозь строй. ГЛАВА 100 Халохот бежал по лестнице Гиральды, перепрыгивая через две ступеньки.
Мидж развернулась и направилась к двери. Откуда ни возьмись появился Бринкерхофф и преградил ей дорогу. - Куда держишь путь. - Домой! - солгала Мидж. Бринкерхофф не уходил с дороги.
Сьюзан как во сне читала и перечитывала эти строки. Затем дрожащими руками открыла следующее сообщение. ТО: NDAKOTAARA. ANON. ORG FROM: ETDOSHISHA. EDU МЕНЯЮЩИЙСЯ ОТКРЫТЫЙ ТЕКСТ ДЕЙСТВУЕТ.
- Докладывайте. В задней части комнаты Сьюзан Флетчер отчаянно пыталась совладать с охватившим ее чувством невыносимого одиночества. Она тихо плакала, закрыв .
Густые клубы пара окутывали корпус ТРАНСТЕКСТА, ступеньки лестницы были влажными от конденсации, она едва не упала, поскользнувшись. Она нервничала, гадая, сколько еще времени продержится ТРАНСТЕКСТ. Сирены продолжали завывать; то и дело вспыхивали сигнальные огни. Тремя этажами ниже дрожали и гудели резервные генераторы. Сьюзан знала, что где-то на дне этого погруженного в туман подземелья есть рубильник.
На экран выплыла надпись: КЛЮЧ К ШИФРУ-УБИЙЦЕ ПОДТВЕРЖДЕН - Укрепить защитные стены! - приказал Джабба. Но Соши, опередив его, уже отдала команду. - Утечка прекратилась! - крикнул техник. - Вторжение прекращено. Наверху, на экране ВР, возникла первая из пяти защитных стен.