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- Forest rangeland relationships
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- Rangeland Ecosystem Services: Nature’s Supply and Humans’ Demand
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Rangeland Systems pp Cite as. Ecosystem services are the benefits that society receives from nature, including the regulation of climate, the pollination of crops, the provisioning of intellectual inspiration and recreational environment, as well as many essential goods such as food, fiber, and wood.
Rangeland ecosystem services are often valued differently by different stakeholders interested in livestock production, water quality and quantity, biodiversity conservation, or carbon sequestration. The supply of ecosystem services depends on biophysical conditions and land-use history, and their availability is assessed using surveys of soils, plants, and animals. The demand for ecosystem services depends on educational level, income, and location of residence of social beneficiaries.
The demand can be assessed through stakeholder interviews, questionnaires, and surveys. Rangeland management affects the supply of different ecosystem services by producing interactions among them. Trade-offs result when an increase in one service is associated with a decline in another, and win—win situations occur when an increase in one service is associated with an increase in other services.
This chapter provides a conceptual framework in which range management decisions are seen as a challenge of reconciling supply and demand of ecosystem services. Since its conceptualization, the focus of ecosystem services has changed from the description of the processes involved in delivery of a single service at a point in time Daily to approaches for analyzing the capacity of nature to produce multiple ecosystem services.
The next steps have been assessing multiple ecosystem services under alternative land-use regimes Foley et al. Management aimed at increasing the supply of one specific ecosystem service may increase or decrease the supply of others creating trade-offs and win—win situations, respectively. Rangelands, the land on which the potential native vegetation is predominately grasses, grasslike plants, forbs, or shrubs Kauffman and Pyke ; Chap. Rangelands produce a great variety of ecosystem services but only few of them have market value Sala and Paruelo For example, commodities produced by rangelands such as meat or wool have market value but other ecosystem services such as regulating, cultural, and supporting services mostly do not have a market value although it is possible to estimate it indirectly.
Number of scientific publications emphasizing ecosystem services during the period — modified from Rositano et al. Human demand represents the other side of an ecosystem service equation of supply and demand, which is related to the social beneficiaries. Human consumption of resources and utilization of services that are supplied by ecosystems depend upon both their capacity to produce them and the societal value and need placed on those resources and services Tallis and Polasky Demand for ecosystem services changes among stakeholders or social beneficiaries, who are the individuals or groups of individuals who have an interest in ecosystem services because they get a profit from them and could have an active or passive influence on their delivery Lamarque et al.
Stakeholders not only exhibit different demands, but they also have different valuations of various ecosystem services. Indeed, an ecosystem service is not a universally applicable physical phenomenon, but one whose value is shaped by its users. Sustainable land management depends on reconciling supply and demand for ecosystem services by different stakeholders.
Rangelands are ideal for analyzing the balance between supply and demand for different types of services because of the variety of ecosystem services that they provide and the diverse suite of stakeholders interested in different services.
In contrast, hyperarid ecosystems provide supporting, cultural, and regulating services but few provisioning services. Similarly humid ecosystems are generally transformed into crop- and wood-production systems, or are subject to human commercial, residential, and industrial development at the expense of cultural, provisioning, and regulating services. In addition, rangelands are broadly threatened by land degradation and climate change Herrick et al.
In general, rangelands produce abundant ecosystem services in quantity and variety, but the large value and threat of degradation contrast with the fact that humans usually assign small value to them, particularly when compared with tropical or temperate forests Martin-Lopez et al.
The transformation of rangeland ecosystems into croplands is constrained by biophysical conditions and economic feasibility Havstad et al. For example, mesic rangelands have been converted to agriculture land, while arid and semiarid rangelands continue to be used as grazing lands, with investments in domestic animals, veterinary and reproductive management, fences, and water points that in combination result in a significant increase in livestock production Oesterheld et al.
In this chapter, we describe the 1 main ecosystem services provided by rangelands and the major categories of social beneficiaries and 2 most common methods used to estimate supply and demand of these services, and 3 analyze the determinants of supply and demand of ecosystem services and discuss the existence of trade-offs and win—win conditions in the provision of services. Finally, we provide a new conceptual framework for the management of rangelands that is based on reconciling supply and demand of ecosystem services.
This framework is dependent on place, time, and the specific valuation that each stakeholder has of specific ecosystem service. The framework recognizes that both supply and demand of ecosystem services change in space and time and are strongly influenced by land management decisions. In this section, we describe the main ecosystem services provided by rangelands in each of the four categories of ecosystem services as defined by the Millennium Assessment MA We then analyze the balance between supply and demands for each type of ecosystem service.
Provisioning services are the products obtained from ecosystems that can be directly harvested, and, in general, have a market value such as food, fiber, fuel, and freshwater. The main goods produced in rangelands are freshwater for drinking and irrigation; forage to produce meat, milk, wool, and leather; and medicinal products Sala and Paruelo What frequently drives the demand for provisioning services is the immediate need of humans for particular plant or animal species, including production of desirable forage species and the harvest of wild game Perrings et al.
The relationship between supply and demand for these products changes among regions and among the specific provisioning services. At a global scale, the demand for provisioning services in rangelands is higher than the supply, but at local scales, supply may exceed demands Yahdjian et al. In the case of water for irrigation, water is required during specific periods when water is scarce, so supply and demand may be spatially or temporally disconnected, which is particularly important since most rangelands are water limited.
As such, for provisioning services, the demand surpasses the supply, which is particularly evident for freshwater and food Yahdjian et al.
The supply of provisioning ecosystem services changes in time at different scales. The supply of meat and wool fluctuates with seasons and production systems, but also changes at decadal timescales as a result of land degradation and market fluctuations Texeira and Paruelo Supply of provisioning ecosystem services changes in space over multiple scales, from differences among locations within a specific community to variation along regional precipitation gradients Adler et al.
Finally, the demand for provisioning services changes among beneficiaries depending on their income, education, and urban versus rural residence Yahdjian et al.
Regulating services are the benefits humans receive from regulating ecosystem processes, such as climate regulation, air quality maintenance, water purification, and erosion control. Rangelands sequester large quantities of carbon, principally into the soil, and avoid carbon losses to the atmosphere that would occur if rangelands were to be transformed into croplands or severely degraded Sala and Paruelo In the case of carbon sequestration, demand is higher than the supply because this process cannot offset actual carbon emissions from human activities Tallis and Polasky Every unit of sequestered greenhouse gas emitted will allow us to minimize environmental and economic damage that would have occurred otherwise.
The whole world benefits from a unit of carbon sequestration regardless of where it occurs because greenhouse gases thoroughly mix in the global atmosphere. Carbon sequestration in rangelands is important because of the area that rangelands occupy although per unit area carbon storage is lower than other ecosystems, such as wetlands and forests Reynolds et al.
Cultural services are the nonmaterial benefits that humans obtain from ecosystems and they include cultural diversity, spiritual, and religious values, knowledge systems, and recreation. They involve consumptive and nonconsumptive services. Cultural services in rangelands are related to human experiences associated with activities such as wild game hunting, traditional lifestyles, and tourist ranching experiences.
The demand for cultural services changes according to the region analyzed Tallis and Polasky and has changed over time. For example, in the southwestern USA, the Bureau of Land Management, who administers a large fraction of federal lands in the region, reported an increase in the number of visitors to their lands from 20 to 45 M per year for the — period Yahdjian et al.
Similarly, the National Park Service reported for the same period an annual increase of 15 M visitors from 35 to 50 M per year. Supporting services are those that are necessary for the production of all other ecosystem services such as processes that maintain biodiversity to produce goods or cycle nutrients MA In rangelands, supporting services are primary production, nutrient cycling, conservation of soils, and biodiversity, which represent a large storehouse of genetic, species, and functional diversity.
Rangelands represent the natural ecosystem where annual grasses and legumes are most abundant and from where a large fraction of domesticated species originated Sala and Paruelo The key to sustaining biodiversity is harmonizing its protection with the delivery of as many other ecosystem services as possible. Land degradation, which in most cases results from overgrazing, weed invasions, energy extraction, and exurban development, directly affects the provision of supporting services. Arguably, rangeland degradation has a larger and more imminent impact than climate change on the ability of these systems to fulfill human needs Herrick et al.
At the global scale, the supply of supporting services is higher than the demand, but human use does not directly apply since, by definition, supporting services are not directly used by people, even when they influence the supply of provisioning, regulating, and cultural services.
Rows represent stakeholders and columns represent various spatial scales at which stakeholders interact with rangeland ecosystems modified from Newcome et al. The supply and demand of ecosystem services occur at different spatial scales.
Some ecosystem services are very local pollination service, cultural services whereas others are global sequestration of greenhouse gases, air and water purification.
The different scales involved in the provision of ecosystem services raise the possibility of a mismatch between supply and demand. Mismatches may also occur between those who control the provision of ecosystem services supply and those who benefit from them users. The main beneficiaries in rangelands are ranchers, land-owner producers, land tenants, service providers, recreational hunters, conservationists, landscape planners, passive and active nature tourists, and government and nongovernmental organizations Scheffer et al.
While ranchers historically have demanded mainly provisioning services, their demands have broadened Brown and McDonald while tourists and conservationists classically have demanded more supporting and cultural services. It is important here to further highlight that ranchers vary enormously in their demand for ecosystem services. Similarly, people living in urban centers demand clean air and water that are provided by adjacent rural areas.
The contrasting demands of different beneficiaries influence the analysis of land-management actions and their consequences on different ecosystem services. Supply and demand for ecosystem services following European settlement modified from data in Carpenter et al.
Different tools and models have been developed to assess the production of ecosystem services, including the valuation of market and nonmarket services, in both economic and noneconomic terms. The combination of ecological production functions and economic valuation describes the monetary value of ecosystem services. Recently, the Natural Capital Project has developed a tool to integrate biophysical and economic information on ecosystem services Tallis et al.
The demand has been evaluated focusing on the perception of ecosystem services by different stakeholders De Chazal et al. Preferences have been assessed by compiling responses to questionnaires and interviews Lamarque et al. Other questionnaires request that people rank ecosystem services according to their preferences. Finally, the traditional surveys formally used to value nonmarket ecosystem services, such as the willingness to pay for conservation of certain resources or the existence value, may also be included in studies of demands.
The main drivers associated with people preferences for ecosystem services were monthly income, level of education from traditional ecological knowledge to formal education , and place of residence the rural—urban continuum; Yahdjian et al.
In addition, other social variables like age, gender, culture, and geographical location were also associated with the interest that people have in ecosystem services MA The relationship between the supply of ecosystem services and the demand for them determines the actual use of ecosystem services by society Tallis and Polasky Food production per hectare or the amount of clean water used for irrigation are examples of estimates of the use of provisioning ecosystem services.
When global analyses are implemented, remote drivers and teleconnections, such as international trade practices and agreements, have to be taken into account. Trade patterns, which can be dynamic and quite nuanced, show how demand for certain services in one country leads to changes in the provisioning services in other countries.
There are cases of synergistic and antagonistic interactions among different types of ecosystem services. Synergistic interactions, or win—win conditions, indicate that management leading to the increase of one type of ecosystem service may result in the increase of other ecosystem services. For example, some ecosystem services respond similarly to specific management practices and ecological conditions, such as those that may lead to increased carbon sequestration then resulting in increased water holding capacity, and, many of them, such as cultural services and biodiversity conservation, produce multiple intertwined values Bennett et al.
For example, land management practices that lead to increases in the provisioning of food may result in a reduction of clean water purification, creating trade-offs in the provisioning of ecosystem services Raudsepp-Hearne et al. Planting trees to increase carbon sequestration or timber production may decrease stream flow in arid areas and represents a trade-off Nosetto et al. In summary, ecosystem service research has advanced to identify nature as a complex provider of human benefits MA Example of a win—win interaction between a supportive ecosystem service, carbon and nitrogen stocks, and a provisioning ecosystem service forage production as depicted by the complementary relationships between carbon C a and nitrogen N b in forage of a Patagonian rangeland.
Paddocks are used with different stocking rates. Exclosure Exc includes fields without domestic animals for at least 27 years. Moderately Mod and intensively Int grazed paddocks had 0.
Forest rangeland relationships
Natural resource management NRM is the management of natural resources such as land , water , soil , plants and animals , with a particular focus on how management affects the quality of life for both present and future generations stewardship. Natural resource management deals with managing the way in which people and natural landscapes interact. It brings together natural heritage management, land use planning, water management, bio-diversity conservation , and the future sustainability of industries like agriculture , mining , tourism , fisheries and forestry. It recognises that people and their livelihoods rely on the health and productivity of our landscapes, and their actions as stewards of the land play a critical role in maintaining this health and productivity. Natural resource management specifically focuses on a scientific and technical understanding of resources and ecology and the life-supporting capacity of those resources. In academic contexts, the sociology of natural resources is closely related to, but distinct from, natural resource management. The emphasis on a sustainability can be traced back to early attempts to understand the ecological nature of North American rangelands in the late 19th century, and the resource conservation movement of the same time.
Looking for other ways to read this?
Rangeland Systems pp Cite as. Ecosystem services are the benefits that society receives from nature, including the regulation of climate, the pollination of crops, the provisioning of intellectual inspiration and recreational environment, as well as many essential goods such as food, fiber, and wood. Rangeland ecosystem services are often valued differently by different stakeholders interested in livestock production, water quality and quantity, biodiversity conservation, or carbon sequestration.
Vegetation science applications for rangeland analysis and management pp Cite as. Forest rangeland relationships are complex with different forest ecosystems providing an array of potential understory forage species for wild and domestic herbivore utilization. Specific examples from forest ecosystems around the world are used to illustrate principle overstory-understory relationships and management principles.
Rangeland Ecosystem Services: Nature’s Supply and Humans’ Demand
Rangelands Production of food is dependent upon an adequate resource base - particularly the availability of land, water and energy. Most of Pakistan lies in the arid and semi-arid zone which is characterized by low precipitation, extreme temperatures, and low humidity. Sufficient food production for growing population with limited water supply and fragile land resource is only possible when they are used wisely and sparingly. Outside the irrigation system of Indus valley, most area of the country is used for extensive agriculture and rearing livestock. Rangelands are ecosystems that play critical ecological roles which include: habitat for wildlife, source of biodiversity and pollution buffer. Furthermore, rangelands in Pakistan are a major source of forage for livestock, particularly sheep and goats.
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Other potentially important economic areas for rangelands development Table Red List category summary sub region plants and animals in parts of Provide information on the role of forestry and rangelands in the protection of soil and.
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Время идет, старик канадец может куда-нибудь исчезнуть. Вполне вероятно, он решит поскорее вернуться в Канаду. Или надумает продать кольцо. Беккер не мог ждать. Он решительно поднял трубку, снова набрал номер и прислонился к стене. Послышались гудки. Беккер разглядывал зал.
- Ну и публика собирается там каждый вечер. ГЛАВА 53 Токуген Нуматака лежал на массажном столе в своем кабинете на верхнем этаже. Личная массажистка разминала затекшие мышцы его шеи. Погрузив ладони в складки жира на плечах шефа, она медленно двигалась вниз, к полотенцу, прикрывавшему нижнюю часть его спины. Ее руки спускались все ниже, забираясь под полотенце. Нуматака почти ничего не замечал.
Терпи, - сказал он. - Терпи. Потом закрыл глаза и глубоко вздохнул. Беккер не сразу почувствовал, что его кто-то подталкивает. Подняв глаза, он увидел старика с усыпанным родинками лицом, который стоял перед ним, намереваясь пройти.
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