File Name: friendship and need fulfillment during three phases of young adulthood .zip
- The 8 Stages of Human Development
- Adult development
- Friendship and Need Fulfillment During Three Phases of Young Adulthood
The theory of psychosocial development created by Erik Erikson is one of the best-known personality theories. The theory differs from many others in that it addresses development across the entire lifespan, from birth through death. At each stage, the individual deals with a conflict that serves as a turning point in development. When the conflict is resolved successfully, the person is able to develop the psychosocial quality associated with that particular stage of development. Learn about each psychosocial stage, including the conflict confronted and the major events that occur during each point of development.
The 8 Stages of Human Development
The theory of psychosocial development created by Erik Erikson is one of the best-known personality theories. The theory differs from many others in that it addresses development across the entire lifespan, from birth through death. At each stage, the individual deals with a conflict that serves as a turning point in development. When the conflict is resolved successfully, the person is able to develop the psychosocial quality associated with that particular stage of development.
Learn about each psychosocial stage, including the conflict confronted and the major events that occur during each point of development. Trust versus mistrust is the earliest psychosocial stage that occurs during the first year or so of a child's life.
During this critical phase of development, an infant is utterly dependent upon his or her caregivers. When parents or caregivers respond to a child's needs in a consistent and caring manner, the child then learns to trust the world and the people around him. The second psychosocial stage involves the conflict between autonomy and shame or doubt.
As the child enters the toddler years, gaining a greater sense of personal control becomes increasingly important. Tasks such as learning how to use the toilet, selecting foods and choosing toys are ways that children gain a greater sense of independence. The third psychosocial stage is known as initiative versus guilt and occurs between the ages of about three and five. This stage is centered on developing a sense of self-initiative. Children who are allowed and encouraged to engage in self-directed play emerge with a sense of strong initiative, while those who are discouraged may begin to feel a sense of guilt over their self-initiated activities.
During middle childhood between the ages of about six and eleven, children enter the psychosocial stage known as industry versus inferiority. As children engage in social interaction with friends and academic activities at school, they begin to develop a sense of pride and accomplishment in their work and abilities.
Children who are praised and encouraged to develop a sense of competence. Those who are discouraged are left with a sense of inferiority. In the fifth psychosocial stage is centered on identity versus role confusion.
During adolescence, teens explore different behaviors, roles, and identities. Erikson believed that this stage was particularly crucial and that forging a strong identity serves as a basis for finding future direction in life. Those who find a sense of identity feel secure, independent and ready to face the future, while those who remain confused may feel lost, insecure and unsure of their place in the world.
The sixth psychosocial stage is centered on intimacy versus isolation is focuses on forming intimate, loving relationships with other people. Dating, marriage, family, and friendships are important during the intimacy versus isolation stage, which lasts from approximate age 19 to By successfully forming loving relationships with other people, individuals are able to experience love and enjoy intimacy.
Those who fail to form lasting relationships may feel isolated and alone. Once adults enter the generativity versus stagnation stage that occurs during middle adulthood, the psychosocial conflict becomes centered on the need to create or nurture things that will outlast the individual.
Raising a family, working, and contributing to the community are all ways that people develop a sense of purpose. Those who fail to find ways to contribute may feel disconnected and useless. During this period of time, the individual looks back on his or her life. The major question during this stage is, "Did I live a meaningful life? Those who have will feel a sense of peace, wisdom, and fulfillment, even when facing death.
For those who look back on life with bitterness and regret, feelings of despair may result. One major criticism of the psychosocial stage theory is that these stages do not necessarily follow a sequential order. People can experience these developmental changes and challenges at different points in their lives.
For example, the challenges of intimacy versus isolation are not just restricted to the period of early adulthood; these are issues that can affect people all throughout life and even well into old age.
Challenges to identity can also take place well outside of the teen years. People are growing, changing, and learning at all stages of life. It is important to remember that Erikson's theory of psychosocial development represents just one theoretical framework to describe how development takes place. However, these stages can be a helpful way to think about how people change through life and some of the typical challenges that they may face at different points in their lives.
Ever wonder what your personality type means? Sign up to find out more in our Healthy Mind newsletter. Midlife Eriksonian psychosocial development: Setting the stage for late-life cognitive and emotional health. Dev Psychol. Stage 1: Trust Versus Mistrust. Trust vs. Stage 2: Autonomy Versus Shame and Doubt. Stage 3: Initiative Versus Guilt. How Children Develop a Sense of Initiative.
Stage 4: Industry Versus Inferiority. Stage 5: Identity Versus Confusion. Stage 6: Intimacy Versus Isolation. Intimacy vs. Isolation: Forming Intimate Relationships. Stage 7: Generativity Versus Stagnation. Characteristics of Generativity and Stagnation. Stage 8: Integrity Versus Despair. Integrity vs. Despair in Psychosocial Development Theory. Criticisms of Psychosocial Theory One major criticism of the psychosocial stage theory is that these stages do not necessarily follow a sequential order.
A Word From Verywell It is important to remember that Erikson's theory of psychosocial development represents just one theoretical framework to describe how development takes place.
Was this page helpful? Thanks for your feedback! Sign Up. What are your concerns? Article Sources. Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
Metrics details. The importance of supportive social relationships for psychological well-being has been previously recognized, but the direction of associations between both dimensions and how they evolve when adolescents enter adulthood have scarcely been addressed. The present study aims to examine the gender-specific associations between self-reported friendship network quality and psychological well-being of young people during the transition from late adolescence to young adulthood by taking into account the direction of association. A random sample of Swedes born in were surveyed at age 19 and again at age 23 regarding their own health and their relationships with a maximum of five self-nominated friends. The response rate was
Imagine two children born in the same town and the same year to families with similar socioeconomic statuses. One child grows up to be assertive and confident, while the other grows up to be timid and shy. The study of the stages of human development can help explain the reasons for these differences and much more. What is human development, exactly? Human development is a branch of psychology with the goal of understanding people — how they develop, grow, and change throughout their lives.
Friendship and Need Fulfillment During Three Phases of Young Adulthood
Adult development encompasses the changes that occur in biological and psychological domains of human life from the end of adolescence until the end of one's life. These changes may be gradual or rapid and can reflect positive, negative, or no change from previous levels of functioning. Changes occur at the cellular level and are partially explained by biological theories of adult development and aging. Stage theories typically focus on "age-appropriate" developmental tasks to be achieved at each stage. Erik Erikson and Carl Jung proposed stage theories of human development that encompass the entire life span, and emphasized the potential for positive change very late in life.
The importance of establishing and maintaining relationships in middle adulthood is now well established in academic literature—there are now thousands of published articles purporting to demonstrate that social relationships are integral to any and all aspects of subjective well being and physiological functioning, and these help to inform actual healthcare practices. Studies show an increased risk of dementia, cognitive decline, susceptibility to vascular disease, and increased mortality in those who feel isolated and alone. However, loneliness is not confined to people living a solitary existence.
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Erik Erikson was a 20th century psychologist. He analyzed and divided the human experience into eight stages of development.
Relationships and Family Life in Middle Adulthood
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