Cold And Hot Forging Fundamentals And Applications Pdf

cold and hot forging fundamentals and applications pdf

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cold and hot forging: fundamentals and applications

Among all manufacturing processes, forging technology has a special place because it can be used to produce parts of superior mechanical properties with minimum waste of material. Process selection and optimization are important because of the ever-increasing costs of material, energy, and labor. This reference book reviews the fundamentals of forging technology, the principal variables of the forging process and their interactions, and computer-aided techniques such as finite element analysis FEA for forging process and tooling design. Topics addressed include the flow behavior of the forged material under processing conditions; die geometry and die materials; friction and lubrication; the mechanics of deformation strains and stresses ; the characteristics of forging equipment; the geometry, tolerances, surface finish and mechanical properties of forgings; and the effects of the process on the environment. A major emphasis is on the latest developments in the design of forging operations and dies, and process modeling using FEA is discussed in all of the relevant chapters. Several chapters of the book have appendices that consist of computer animations showing the results of FEA simulations for various forging operations. Sign in.

Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications is a practical guide to the design and optimization of forging operations and dies. It reviews relevant engineering principles, describing the deformation and flow of materials, the concept of flow stress, and the development and use of flow rules based on Tresca and von Mises criteria. It discusses the issue of heat generation and transfer along with related factors such as die geometry, materials of construction, press speed, contact time, friction, lubrication, and forging temperature. It explains how approximate methods such as finite elements can be used to better understand and more effectively control forging operations and the geometry, tolerances, surface quality, and mechanical properties of forgings. It describes common types of forging machines and their differentiating features and functions. It discusses process and die design, methods for estimating forging loads, and the use of finite element analysis to simulate hot, cold, and warm forging processes. It also covers isothermal and near-net shape forging, die wear, and microstructure modeling.

Cold And Hot Forging: Fundamentals And Applications

Abstract In this study, ring compression test was conducted to investigate i effects of surface topography on friction and lubrication at room temperature with both dry and lubricated conditions, and ii the effect of die temperature on friction and lubrication by differentiating temperatures of die and ring samples. Findings from experiments and FE results lead to develop a pressure-dependent variable friction model that concurrently changes friction factor during the forming stroke and different contact surface areas. The constant frictional model and this variable friction model were used in FE simulations of ring compression.

This article presents a wear analysis of die inserts used in the hot forging process of manufacturing a yoke type forging—an element applied in the steering systems of passenger vehicles. The studies involved the application of an original reverse scanning method intended for a fast and reliable wear analysis of the forging tools of complicated shapes , affording an easy assessment, without the need to dismount the tools from the forging unit. The research is based on measurements scans of forgings periodically collected from the process and constitutes a useful tool for measuring and testing. In addition to the industrial forging process, a new lubrication-cooling system has been developed to enable an investigation of the effect of the amount and frequency of lubrication on the tool wear, as well as to determine the optimum lubrication parameters to ensure repeatability of the forging process. The preliminary results show the possibility of using an extended method to analyze the lifetime of forging tools, including tools with complex geometry, as well as introducing a new forging and stabilizing process of the lubricating and cooling devices.

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Cold and Hot Forging Fundamentals and Applications

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