File Name: skeletal muscle hypertrophy and atrophy signaling pathways .zip
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- mTOR as a Key Regulator in Maintaining Skeletal Muscle Mass
- Signaling Pathways that Mediate Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy: Effects of Exercise Training
- Mechanisms of muscle atrophy and hypertrophy: implications in health and disease
- Muscle hypertrophy
mTOR as a Key Regulator in Maintaining Skeletal Muscle Mass
Muscle hypertrophy or muscle building involves a hypertrophy or increase in size of skeletal muscle through a growth in size of its component cells. Two factors contribute to hypertrophy: sarcoplasmic hypertrophy, which focuses more on increased muscle glycogen storage; and myofibrillar hypertrophy, which focuses more on increased myofibril size. A range of stimuli can increase the volume of muscle cells. These changes occur as an adaptive response that serves to increase the ability to generate force or resist fatigue in anaerobic conditions. Strength training resistance training causes neural and muscular adaptations which increase the capacity of an athlete to exert force through voluntary muscular contraction: After an initial period of neuro-muscular adaptation, the muscle tissue expands by creating sarcomeres contractile elements and increasing non-contractile elements like sarcoplasmic fluid. Muscular hypertrophy can be induced by progressive overload a strategy of progressively increasing resistance or repetitions over successive bouts of exercise in order to maintain a high level of effort.
Maintenance of skeletal muscle mass is regulated by the balance between anabolic and catabolic processes. Recent findings have continued to refine our understanding of the function of mTOR in maintaining skeletal muscle mass. This review will highlight the fundamental role of mTOR in skeletal muscle growth by summarizing the phenotype of skeletal-specific mTOR deficiency. In addition, the evidence that mTOR is a dual regulator of anabolism and catabolism in skeletal muscle mass will be discussed. A full understanding of mTOR signaling in the maintenance of skeletal muscle mass could help to develop mTOR-targeted therapeutics to prevent muscle wasting.
Signaling Pathways that Mediate Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy: Effects of Exercise Training
The molecular mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle maintenance involve interplay between multiple signaling pathways. Under normal physiological conditions, a network of interconnected signals serves to control and coordinate hypertrophic and atrophic messages, culminating in a delicate balance between muscle protein synthesis and proteolysis. Cachexia increases the likelihood of death from these already serious diseases. Recent studies have further defined the pathways leading to gain and loss of skeletal muscle as well as the signaling events that induce differentiation and post-injury regeneration, which are also essential for the maintenance of skeletal muscle mass. In this review, we summarize and discuss the relevant recent literature demonstrating these previously undiscovered mediators governing anabolism and catabolism of skeletal muscle.
Myostatin inactivation can induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy, while its overexpression or systemic administration causes muscle atrophy. A wealth of data strongly suggests that alterations in skeletal muscle mass are associated with dysregulation in myostatin expression. Myostatin negatively regulates the activity of the Akt pathway, which promotes protein synthesis, and increases the activity of the ubiquitin—proteasome system to induce atrophy. Several new studies have brought new information on how myostatin may affect both ribosomal biogenesis and translation efficiency of specific mRNA subclasses. In addition, although myostatin has been identified as a modulator of the major catabolic pathways, including the ubiquitin—proteasome and the autophagy—lysosome systems, the underlying mechanisms are only partially understood.
Mechanisms of muscle atrophy and hypertrophy: implications in health and disease
Pharmacology of doping agents—mechanisms promoting muscle hypertrophy[J]. Article views PDF downloads Cited by 3. Figures 7. Previous Article Next Article. Pharmacology of doping agents—mechanisms promoting muscle hypertrophy.
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Alves and Edilamar M. This difference is dependent on the myosin heavy chain MHC isoform that predominates in each fiber type and the gene expression program, and therefore the distribution of fiber types is genetically determined [ 2 , 3 ]. The various muscle functions are controlled by signaling pathways that allow the muscle fiber respond to changes in the metabolic and functional demands of the body. Indeed, examples in the world of sports, therapy, surgery, and trauma support the idea that skeletal muscle is one of the most adaptable tissues in the body. Skeletal muscle response varies whether the level of use increases or decreases. In fact, muscles are always trying to tailor their molecular, structural and functional properties to the level of use demanded of them.
some forms of muscle hypertrophy in the adult. muscle hypertrophy or atrophy do not always pro- Two major signaling pathways control skeletal muscle.