General Properties Of Acids And Bases Pdf

general properties of acids and bases pdf

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Acids are substances that contain one or more hydrogen atoms that, in solution , are released as positively charged hydrogen ions. An acid in a water solution tastes sour, changes the colour of blue litmus paper to red, reacts with some metals e.

Many people enjoy drinking coffee. A cup first thing in the morning helps start the day. But keeping the coffee maker clean can be a problem. Lime deposits build up after a while and slow down the brewing process. The best cure for this is to put vinegar dilute acetic acid in the pot and run it through the brewing cycle.

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Organic acids: Acids derived from living organisms like plants and animals. For example: citric acid is present in fruits, acetic acid present in vinegar, oxalic acid present in tomato, tartaric acid present in tamarind, lactic acid present in sour milk and curd.

Mineral acids: They are also called inorganic acids. Strong acids: Completely dissociate into its ions in aqueous solutions. Weak acids: Weak acids are those acids which do not completely dissociate into its ions in aqueous solutions. Dilute acids: Have a low concentration of acids in aqueous solutions. Concentrated acids: Have a high concentration of acids in aqueous solutions. Strong bases: Strong bases are those bases which completely dissociate into its ions in aqueous solutions.

Weak bases: Weak bases are those bases which do not completely dissociate into its ions in aqueous solutions. For example: ammonium hydroxide NH 4 OH. Dilute bases: Have a low concentration of alkali in aqueous solutions. Concentrated bases: Have a high concentration of alkali in aqueous solutions.

A scale for measuring hydrogen ion concentration in a solution, called pH scale has been developed. Acidity can be lethal for plants and animals. The inner lining of stomach protects vital cells from this acidic pH. The pH of mouth should always be more than 5. This reaction is called as neutralization reaction. The process of dissolving an acid, specially nitric acid or sulfuric acid or a base in water is a highly exothermic one.

As a rule: Always add acid to water and never the other way! The acid must be added slowly to water with constant stirring. If one mixes the other way by adding water to a concentrated acid, the heat generated causes the mixture to splash out and cause burns.

They react with bases to form salt and water. Sodium chloride is known as common salt. Its main source is sea water. It is also exists in the form of rocks and is called rock salt. Common salt is an important component of our food. It is also used for preparing sodium hydroxide, baking soda, washing soda etc.

Prepared by Chlor Alkali process :Electricity is passed through an aqueous solution of Sodium chloride called brine. Sodium chloride decomposes to form sodium hydroxide. Chlorine gas is formed at the anode, and hydrogen gas at the cathode. CaSO 4. The pH value for acids is less than 7. For example, metal zinc reacts with hydrochloric acid to form zinc chloride and hydrogen gas. For example, hydrochloric acid reacts with limestone to produce carbonic acid and calcium chloride.

There is a flow of electric current through the solution by ions. Onion : Smell of onion diminishes in a base and remains as it is in an acid. Vanilla: The odour of vanilla essence disappears when it is added to a base. In bases, yellow colour of turmeric turns red.

Litmus solution is a purple dye which is extracted from lichen. Acids turn blue litmus red. Bases turn red litmus blue. Human body works within a pH range of 7. This acid rain if it flows into river water makes the survival of aquatic life difficult. Bees use acids in their sting. To neutralise the effect a mild base like baking soda can be used. Red cabbage juice which is purple in color changes to red in acidic medium.

They feel slippery and soapy. But this reaction can only occur when a metal is strong enough to displace another metal from its parent constituent. Bases turn methyl orange to yellow. Red cabbage juice which is purple in color changes to yellow in basic medium. Please send your queries to ncerthelp gmail. Link of our facebook page is given in sidebar.

Copyright ncerthelp. On the basis of origin, acids are classified as : a. The colour of some acid — base indicators in acidic and basic medium are given below : S. Follow Us On Facebook. Please Share this webpage on facebook, whatsapp, linkdin and twitter.

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Chemistry: Properties of Acids and Bases

Make sure that your printout includes all content from the page. If it doesn't, try opening this guide in a different browser and printing from there sometimes Internet Explorer works better, sometimes Chrome, sometimes Firefox, etc. This may have been interesting drama but not very good chemistry. Consider the relative masses involved: an ion of mass 1 needs an ion of mass 17 to make water, while an ion of mass 17 needs an ion of mass 1 to make water. Which process do you think will be easier? Compare that to the fact that we occasionally purposefully ingest substances such as citrus fruits, vinegar, and wine—all of which contain acids. Of course, some parts of the body, such as the eyes, are extremely sensitive to acids as well as bases.

Organic acids: Acids derived from living organisms like plants and animals. For example: citric acid is present in fruits, acetic acid present in vinegar, oxalic acid present in tomato, tartaric acid present in tamarind, lactic acid present in sour milk and curd. Mineral acids: They are also called inorganic acids. Strong acids: Completely dissociate into its ions in aqueous solutions. Weak acids: Weak acids are those acids which do not completely dissociate into its ions in aqueous solutions. Dilute acids: Have a low concentration of acids in aqueous solutions. Concentrated acids: Have a high concentration of acids in aqueous solutions.

Swedish Svante Arrhenius, in proposed the concept of acid and base based on the theory of ionization. This concept is only applicable to those compounds which dissolved in aqueous solution or you can say where water is the solvent. It covers many common acids, bases and their chemical reactions, but there are also other compounds that have the characteristics of acids and bases but they do not fit into Arrhenius concept. The concept of acids and bases have been defined many times in different ways. Several scientists put various definitions to characterize the acids and bases in which some of the concepts are quite narrow and some are comprehensive. Acids and bases are existing everywhere in our daily life.

acids bases and salts for class 10 cbse notes

Definition and Classification of Solid Acids and Bases. Acidic property. Basic property. Acid-base property.

Acids and bases are compounds with one important thing in common: When you immerse them in solution, they release free ions. Chemists measure the strength of an acid or base by its pH, which is a term that refers to the "power of hydrogen. Compounds with a pH lower than the midpoint value are acidic while those with a higher value are basic or alkaline. Acids taste sour while bases taste bitter. An acid reacts with metals to produce bubbles of hydrogen gas while a base feels slimy to the touch.

The Arrhenius Acid and Base Theory

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