Secularization Theories And The Study Of Chinese Religions Pdf

secularization theories and the study of chinese religions pdf

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Secularization, Desecularization, and Toleration pp Cite as. These include religious monopoly, oligopoly, pluralism, and atheist eradication of all religions. The chapter offers an assessment of the social consequences of various secularization regimes in terms of religious toleration.

Secularization Regimes and Religious Toleration: China’s Multiple Experiments

Boltz, Judith. Daniel L. Sankt Augustin: Institut Monumenta Serica, Brereton, Brian Cosper. Abstract: My dissertation analyzes the influence of conceptions and representations of the religious afterlife on individual and collective action in contemporary Taiwan.

The critical study of representations of the Chinese afterlife has occurred almost exclusively in their anthropological locus classicus : the ancestral tablet, funerary ritual, and the underworld Ahern ; Wolf ; Cohen My research, which builds on these foundtional inquiries, focuses on two alternative and fecund fields of otherworldly re production and representation: recent textual depictions of the afterlife and mythological theme parks.

In this study, I will address both textual sources and ethnographic data to launch an inquiry into three key research questions concerning conceptions of the afterlife in Taiwan today: namely, 1 the struggle between individual desire and collective concerns, 2 the applicability and adaptability of traditional models of the religious afterlife, and 3 the processes by which representations of the afterlife illuminate and influence contemporary social systems.

My analytical framework - inspired by practice theory, psychoanalytic thought, and psychological anthropology - illuminates an otherwise overlooked integrity in conventional Chinese conceptions of the afterlife and reveals the emotional correlates of their continuities and changes in current Taiwanese society.

Brook, Timothy. Wank [eds. Bujard, Marianne. Leiden: Brill, Chan, Kwok-shin. Berlin: Lit, Chang, Wen-Chun. Abstract: This paper investigates the relationship between religious attendance and subjective well-being in an Eastern-culture country. The findings of this study indicate that religious attendance has positive relationships with happiness as well as domain satisfactions with interpersonal relationship, health, and marital life, but it is not significantly related to the satisfaction with personal financial status.

Interestingly, for believers of Eastern religions, those who have a higher level of relative income tend to have higher levels of satisfaction with financial status and health status, but are less satisfied with being free of worry and interpersonal relationship. Moreover, for the adherents of Eastern religions, those who have a higher educational attainment appear to report lower levels of overall happiness and the satisfaction with being free of worry.

It appears that the differences in the religious practices and organizational settings between Eastern religions and Western Christianity lead to different patterns of the relationships between religious attendance and various measures of subjective well-being. Chao, Shin-yi. Chau, Adam Yuet. Chi, Chang-hui. Abstract: This article explores the impact of the global Cold War on local politics through the study of a state deified female ghost Wang Yulan in Jinmen, Taiwan.

The liminal status of ghosts in the Chinese celestial order makes room for possible multiple meanings of state-local contestation. Chia, Jack Meng-Tat.

Abstract: Large scale Chinese emigration began in the mid-nineteenth century and lasted through the first half of twentieth century. The migration of the Nan'an people contributed to the religious spread of Guangze Zunwang's cult from Southeast China to Southeast Asia in general, and Singapore and Malaysia in particular.

The arrival and settlement of the Nan'an migrants prompted the establishment of Guangze Zunwang temples in the two host countries. This study examines the cult of Guangze Zunwang and its religious network connecting Southeast China and the Chinese communities in Singapore and Malaysia from the early nineteenth century to It argues that the diasporic religious network of the Guangze Zunwang's cult has a significant role in the trans-regional movement of resources between China and the Chinese overseas.

As this research will illustrate, temples were important institutions for the Chinese diaspora, in which they served as important nodes in this diasporic network. Abstract: This article examines the Tua Pek Kong Temple and religious activities in Pulau Kusu as they intersect with the larger forces of social change, state management, and development of the Southern Islands since the independence of Singapore, from to the present.

State authorities in mainland Singapore have tried to exert more control over the temple through the management of the island. Chipman, Elana. Abstract: This article considers the transformations over time of ritual networks centered on the town of Beigang, Taiwan in dialogue with earlier treatments of ritual and social organization.

The case of this pilgrimage center supports observations on contemporary Taiwanese ritual and belief spheres, but it also complicates the understanding that contemporary trans-local political and economic processes have strengthened pan-island belief spheres at the expense of local communal ritual organization.

Ritual networks in contemporary Taiwan are increasingly de-territorialized, but in Beigang they remain linked to locality, even as worshippers and natives become de-territorialized as individuals in their relationship to Beigang Mazu.

Chou, Hansen. Abstract: This thesis explores the recent revival of popular religion in Taiwan through broader anthropological concerns regarding place and space. Swift industrialization and rapid urbanization of past decades have not dissuaded religious practice; instead they have flourished on the island.

This study pays specific attention to their proliferation at the urban margins. Drawing on historical and ethnographic data based on field research conducted in , the present work examines the spatial politics of place at a community on the urban periphery, just outside of Taipei in northern Taiwan. More specifically, it analyzes two key sites within the community that locals often evoke as crucial locations in their cultural and social imaginings of place: a cultural heritage district and the local communal temple.

By addressing the everyday experiences of space, this thesis addresses the dynamics between histories, affect and place. In all, it argues that, amidst the uncertainties of change brought on by their modern izing surroundings, people resort to rituals like divination in hopes to mitigate their maladies and misfortunes.

By turning to the past in their attempts to make sense of the present, they further engage in a form of local production. Clart, Philip. Reiter [ed. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, Cook, Constance A. Dean, Kenneth. DeBernardi, Jean. Abstract : In this paper, I develop a detailed consideration of ways in which Chinese religious practitioners, including Daoists, Christians, and spirit mediums, deploy syncretism in complex fields of practice.

Rather than focusing on doctrinal blending, this study emphasises the ways in which these practitioners combine elements from diverse religious traditions through the media of ritual performance, visual representation, story, and landscape.

After considering the diverse ways in which syncretic processes may be deployed in a field of practice, the paper investigates three ethnographic cases, exploring ritual co-celebration at Wudang Mountain in South-central China, charismatic Christian practices in Singapore, and the recent development of Holy Mount Zion as a Christian pilgrimage site in Taiwan. Xinzhuang: Fu Da chubanshe, Dobbelaere, Karel. Abstract: The author proposes a reflection on challenges that the three anthropological articles in this issue present for secularization theory.

Source: journal. Epstein, Maram. Abstract: This article examines the chronological biographies of the Qing ritualists Yan Yuan and Li Gong to witness how they negotiated and wrote about the ritual and emotional priorities in their relationships with various family members. It argues that rather than being just a form of ritual duty, filial piety was a core emotion at the center of many people's affective and spiritual lives.

Although the conservative nature of nianpu chronological biography as a genre meant that some of the most intimate relationships in these two men's lives would get passed over in silence, the recording of their manipulation of ritual forms allowed them an indirect means of expressing their affective bonds. Formoso, Bernard. Abstract: Several theories of ethnicity emphasize the analysis of intergroup relations.

They neglect, however, the conflation of ideas and values structuring these relations—notably the cross-cultural aggregates of shared cultural meanings that underlie forms of cooperation and competition between interacting groups. The celebration of this rite in Chaozhou is compared to versions resulting of the ritual in Malay Muslim and Thai Buddhist contexts. Goh, Daniel P. Abstract: The past fifty years have seen continuing anthropological interest in the changes in religious beliefs and practices among the Chinese in Malaysia and Singapore under conditions of rapid modernisation.

Anthropologists have used the syncretic model to explain these changes, arguing that practitioners of Chinese "folk" religion have adapted to urbanisation, capitalist growth, nation-state formation, and literacy to preserve their spiritualist worldview, but the religion has also experienced "rationalisation" in response to the challenge of modernity. This article proposes an alternative approach that questions the dichotomous imagination of spiritualist Chinese religion and rationalist modernity assumed by the syncretic model.

Using ethnographic, archival and secondary materials, I discuss two processes of change — the transfiguration of forms brought about by mediation in new cultural flows, and the hybridisation of meanings brought about by contact between different cultural systems — in the cases of the Confucianist reform movement, spirit mediumship, Dejiao associations, state-sponsored Chingay parades, reform Taoism, and Charismatic Christianity.

These represent both changes internal to Chinese religion and those that extend beyond to reanimate modernity in Malaysia and Singapore. I argue that existential anxiety connects both processes as the consequence of hybridisation and the driving force for transfiguration. On the other hand, community temples refashion the religious life of neighbourhoods, often on the outskirt of cities.

This article explores the complex relationships between these different kinds of temples, the lay groups who visit them, and the Daoist clergy who serve them. Goossaert, Vincent. Haar, Barend J. Hall, Christopher A. Abstract: Studies of Tudi Gong??? This article brings together various perspectives on Tudi Gong from previous studies of Chinese or Taiwanese reli- gion.

Han, Seunghyun. Abstract: In the s, the literati of Suzhou embarked on a project to build a shrine devoted to the worship of local former worthies and engraved almost six hundred portraits of the latter on the shrine's inner walls. Since the locality already had a paired shrine of eminent officials and local worthies, as had become the case across the empire since the mid-Ming period, why did they need to create a shrine of a similar nature? What was the cultural significance of introducing visual representations of the worthies in the worship?

By analyzing the multiple layers of meaning surrounding this shrine-building activity, the present study attempts to illuminate an aspect of the changing state-elite relations in the early nineteenth century. Jochim, Christian. Jones, Stephen. Aldershot: Ashgate, Abstract: This second volume of Stephen Jones' work on ritual and musical life in north China, again with an accompanying DVD, gives an impression of music-making in daily life in the poor mountainous region of Shaanbei, northwest China.

It conveys some of the diverse musical activities there around , from the barrage of pop music blaring from speakers in the bustling county-towns to the life-cycle and calendrical ceremonies of poor mountain villages. Based on the practice of grass-roots music-making in daily life, not merely on official images, the main theme is the painful maintenance of ritual and its music under Maoism, its revival with the market reforms of the s, and its modification under the assaults of TV, pop music, and migration since the s.

The text is in four parts. Part One gives background to the area and music-making in society. Parts Two and Three discuss the lives of bards and shawm bands respectively, describing modifications in their ceremonial activities through the twentieth century.

Part Four acclimatizes us to the modern world with glimpses of various types of musical life in Yulin city, the regional capital, illustrating the contrast with the surrounding countryside. The minute DVD, with its informative commentary, is intended both to illuminate the text and to stand on its own.

Secularization Regimes and Religious Toleration: China’s Multiple Experiments

Such an invention has prevented historians from seeing the continuities between popular religious movements of the late imperial period and new religions of the twentieth century, such as the redemptive societies since the s or the Qigong movements of the s and 90s. This is unfortunate, as such terms come laden with multiple layers of meaning beyond the pejorative connotations attached to sects and cults in popular and journalistic usage. Of course, the Western and Chinese readings are only superficially similar. Western scholars cast Chinese sects in the role of Protestant dissenters and celebrate or occasionally condemn their willingness to challenge the status quo. The Chinese state instead sees an ignorant rabble misled by manipulative charlatans. Still, the two readings sound the common themes of opposition and rebellion, which is how the White Lotus sectarians are portrayed in most Western scholarly literature.

In Lindsay Jones, ed. A revised and expanded version of Daniel L. Overmyer's article in the 1st edition , by Joseph A. Its emphasis is on historical continuities and on the interaction of diverse currents of Chinese religious thought and practice from the prehistoric era to the present]. The study of Chinese religion presents both problems and opportunities for the general theory of religion.

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The government of China officially espouses state atheism , [3] but in reality most of Chinese citizens including Communist Party members practice some kind of Chinese folk religion, especially Confucianism. Chinese civilization has historically long been a cradle and host to a variety of the most enduring religio - philosophical traditions of the world. Confucianism and Taoism Daoism , later joined by Buddhism , constitute the " three teachings " that have shaped Chinese culture. There are no clear boundaries between these intertwined religious systems, which do not claim to be exclusive, and elements of each enrich popular or folk religion. The emperors of China claimed the Mandate of Heaven and participated in Chinese religious practices.

China officially espouses state atheism , [3] but in reality most of Chinese citizens including Communist Party members practice some kind of Chinese folk religion, especially Confucianism. Chinese civilization has historically long been a cradle and host to a variety of the most enduring religio - philosophical traditions of the world. Confucianism and Taoism Daoism , later joined by Buddhism , constitute the " three teachings " that have shaped Chinese culture.

Qty : Please note there is a week delivery period for this title. Introduction: From Forced Secularization to Desecularization 1. The Theological Roots of Militant Atheism 2. Russia's Religious Renaissance 5. Previous studies have typically focused on a single country or religious movement, while there has been precious little comparative, cross-national and cross-civilizational research.

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Religion in Chinese Societies

Boltz, Judith. Daniel L. Sankt Augustin: Institut Monumenta Serica, Brereton, Brian Cosper.

The secularization thesis is a pillar of modern social theory. In some countries, secularization is not only the basis of a descriptive theory but of normative policy. Chinese government policy toward religion is explicitly based on both the descriptive and normative aspects of the secularization thesis. But many social scientists are now saying that the secularization thesis is wrong and that we need a post-secularist social theory to account for the empirically obvious facts of the early twenty-first century. Religious belief and practice have not faded away, and in many parts of the world they are playing a more obvious role in public life than in the past century. Religion, moreover, is dynamically evolving, taking on new forms as well as reviving old forms, and becoming intertwined with the modern bureaucratic state and the market economy in new ways.

This article shows how modernity—and particularly secularization and postmodernism—have attempted to domesticate religion and to manage religious diversity. As societies became more modern, so the theory went, they would inexorably become more secular. Religions were understood as part of the premodern world and would inevitably decay and disappear in the light of modern progress. It would be better to say that several processes of modernization act not as carriers of secularization too strong a term, implying inevitability but as facilitators of it. Secularization is not a necessary result of modernization, but the record shows that modernization certainly has seemed to help it along. Keywords: secularism , secularization , modernization , social coherence , postmodernism , modernity , religion.

Religion in Chinese Societies

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Barbara M.


When scholars of China invoke secularization, they often use the term in a sense that has largely been abandoned within sociology, namely that religion declines​.

Lucero C.


Article Information, PDF download for Secularization Theories and the Study of Chinese Keywords China, popular religion, religious policies, secularization.

Leslie D.


religions are studied according to secularization theories, several main differences could be easily observed; (3) though Chinese religions.