File Name: greenhouse gases and their effects on the environment .zip
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases are increasingly well known.
A greenhouse gas sometimes abbreviated GHG is a gas that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range, causing the greenhouse effect. The vast majority of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions come from combustion of fossil fuels , principally coal , petroleum including oil and natural gas , with additional contributions coming from deforestation and other changes in land use. Hence they are almost totally unaffected by infrared radiation.
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Revision This is a preview of the paper, limited to some initial content. Full access requires DieselNet subscription. Please log in to view the complete version of this paper. Air pollutants are substances that adversely affect the environment by interfering with climate, the physiology of plants, animal species, entire ecosystems, as well as with human property in the form of agricultural crops or man-made structures. We list climate at the top of the list to reflect the fact that global climate change has been recognized as one of the most important environmental challenges to be faced by humanity in the 21 st century.
On the other hand, climate research has linked certain compounds long recognized as air pollutants for instance black carbon to the warming of climate, thus providing one more reason for their control. Air pollutants can originate from natural or anthropogenic man-made sources, or both. Examples of natural sources of pollution include volcanic eruptions or wind erosion.
Emissions from internal combustion engines are an exemplary source of anthropogenic pollution. Some sources of pollution, such as forest fires, can be related to both natural phenomena and human activities. Atmospheric reactions can transform primary pollutants into different chemical species. These reactions can produce both harmless compounds and secondary air pollutants that may be more harmful than their precursors.
Governments and international organizations have been taking actions to protect the quality of air, as well as—in more recent years—to control emissions of climate forcing agents. Ambient air quality standards and guidelines, issued by environmental protection authorities, are instrumental in achieving the air quality objective. Primary standards protect sensitive members of the human population from adverse health effects of criteria air pollutants.
Secondary standards protect the public welfare from any known or anticipated adverse effects associated with the presence of a pollutant in the ambient air.
Welfare effects include effects on soils, water, crops, vegetation, manmade materials, animals, wildlife, weather, visibility, climate, damage to and deterioration of property, hazards to transportation, as well as effects on economic values and personal comfort and well-being.
Abstract : Air pollutants are responsible for a number of adverse environmental effects, such as photochemical smog, acid rain, death of forests, or reduced atmospheric visibility.
Certain air pollutants, including black carbon, not only contribute to global warming, but are also suspected of having immediate effect on regional climates. Destruction of stratospheric ozone. Human health impact. Particulates Forest fires, wind erosion, volcanic eruption Combustion of biofuels such as wood, and fossil fuels such as coal or diesel Reduced atmospheric visibility.
Black carbon particulates contribute to global warming. Sulfur dioxide Volcanic eruptions and decay Coal combustion, ore smelters, petroleum refineries, diesel engines burning high-sulfur fuels Acid rain.
Ozone Lightning, photochemical reactions in the troposphere Secondary pollutant produced in photochemical smog Damage to plants, crops, and man-made products.
Primary pollutants that produce photochemical smog, acid rain, and nitrate particulates. Reduced atmospheric visibility.
Revision This is a preview of the paper, limited to some initial content. Full access requires DieselNet subscription. Please log in to view the complete version of this paper. Air pollutants are substances that adversely affect the environment by interfering with climate, the physiology of plants, animal species, entire ecosystems, as well as with human property in the form of agricultural crops or man-made structures.
ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY - Greenhouse Gases Keywords: Global warming, greenhouse effect, greenhouse gas, climate models, most significant for the present discussion, there is a pronounced and abrupt (in.
Human action is causing an increase in global temperature. For that reason, the greenhouse effect, far from being our great ally as was the case in the past, is now a risk to our survival. The flooding of coastal cities, the desertification of fertile areas, the melting of glacial masses and the proliferation of devastating hurricanes are just some of the main consequences.
Greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and certain synthetic chemicals, trap some of the Earth's outgoing energy, thus retaining heat in the atmosphere. This heat trapping causes changes in the radiative balance of the Earth—the balance between energy received from the sun and emitted from Earth—that alter climate and weather patterns at global and regional scales. Multiple lines of evidence confirm that human activities are the primary cause of the global warming of the past 50 years.
The greenhouse effect is a natural phenomenon that insulates the Earth from the cold of space.
Larger image to save or print Gases that trap heat in the atmosphere are called greenhouse gases. This section provides information on emissions and removals of the main greenhouse gases to and from the atmosphere. For more information on the other climate forcers, such as black carbon , please visit the Climate Change Indicators: Climate Forcing page. A million metric tons is equal to about 2. For comparison, a small car is likely to weigh a little more than 1 metric ton. Thus, a million metric tons is roughly the same mass as 1 million small cars! The U.
The greenhouse effect is the process by which radiation from a planet's atmosphere warms the planet's surface to a temperature above what it would be without this atmosphere. Radiatively active gases i. Part of this radiation is directed towards the surface, thus warming it. The temperature rises until the intensity of upward radiation from the surface, thus cooling it, balances the downward flow of energy.
Some are short-lived, while others can easily last decades or longer in the atmosphere. To bring some understandable reason to the family of GHGs, scientists speak in terms of carbon dioxide equivalent — CO 2 e. NCDC explains that changes in the concentration of water vapor result from climate feedbacks related to the warming of the atmosphere and not from activities related to industrialization. As the temperature of the atmosphere rises, more water is evaporated from ground storage rivers, oceans, reservoirs, soil. As a greenhouse gas, the higher concentration of water vapor is then able to absorb more thermal infrared energy radiated from the Earth, thus further warming the atmosphere. The warmer atmosphere can then hold more water vapor and so on and so on.