File Name: the effect of the marshall plan and the truman doctrine on the cold war .zip
- Questioning the Marshall Plan in the Buildup to the Cold War
- Start of the Cold War - The Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan
- Questioning the Marshall Plan in the Buildup to the Cold War
- The Marshall Plan, the Truman Doctrine, and the Division of Europe
For may years Soviet and Western historians interpreted Truman's actions differently. The Marshall Plan was partly an act of generosity, partly an act of self interest - America wanted Europe to recover so Americans would have partners to trade with. In recent times more evidence has emerged from the Soviet archives.
With President Truman adopting an explicit attitude of anti-Soviet policy with his Truman Plan, historic tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union erupted into what is known as the Cold War. Historians do not fully agree on the dates, but a common time frame is the period between , the year the Truman Doctrine a U. The first phase of the Cold War began in the first two years after the end of the Second World War in The USSR consolidated its control over the states of the Eastern Bloc, while the United States began a strategy of global containment to challenge Soviet power, extending military and financial aid to the countries of Western Europe for example, supporting the anti-communist side in the Greek Civil War and creating the NATO alliance.
Questioning the Marshall Plan in the Buildup to the Cold War
The European Recovery Program, part of the Economic Recovery Act of , was from its inception known by the name of its chief proponent and designer, George C. It was brilliantly designed to succeed where other rehabilitation plans had failed.
The development of the Plan was extremely complex, not only because of what it proposed to do, but also because of ideological tensions between the U.
DiPippo, Student Activities. When I first researched the Marshall Plan in a senior history course at the University of New Hampshire at Manchester UNHM , I found historians almost unanimous in their praise for its humanitarian incentives and overall effectiveness.
At the same time, they agreed that the Plan indirectly contributed to the East-West division of Europe, a process that ultimately culminated in the Cold War.
They see the plan as playing a central role in the emerging Cold War struggle, and some even claim that it intentionally contributed to the tensions that shaped the Cold War. The period roughly between and the collapse of the U. When mounting ideological tensions were accompanied by an unprecedented arms race, the entire planet worried that a full-blown Soviet-American engagement would threaten the very existence of the human race.
If the Marshall Plan actually represented a calculated offensive by the United States against the Soviet Union, it would significantly change my view of the U. This was a much more complex subject than I had begun with.
I plunged into the history books, journal articles, and scholarly reviews, uncovering a variety of historical interpretations. Some historians were impartial and others undeniably biased; however, all of them contributed to my understanding of the designing of the Marshall Plan. These secondary sources provided, through their citations and bibliographies, links to primary sources that documented the obstacles facing George Marshall and the motivations of the U.
At this meeting Marshall was confronted with two seemingly insurmountable problems: the dire economic conditions of Europe and the apparent unwillingness of the Soviet Union to endorse any solution that might retrench European capitalism.
He formally announced his proposal on June 5, , in a commencement speech delivered at Harvard. First, the initiative must come from Europe, it must be evolved in Europe, and Europeans must be held responsible for it.
Second, the program must be collaborative and European nations must form a coalition from which a comprehensive plan could be developed. And finally, the program must be self-sufficient Cromwell, These requirements were crucial if the Marshall Plan was to succeed, not merely at alleviating the immediate European predicament, but also at providing the economies of Europe an external support from which they could eventually stand on their own.
Moreover, these requirements were necessary to receive American congressional approval for the European Recovery Program Cromwell, Officially initiated on April 3, , the Marshall Plan became the largest economic recovery effort in human history.
By requiring collaboration among participants, the Plan rectified the practice of European protectionism, which had contributed to the failure of previous efforts to restore the European economy Judt, The overall success of the Marshall Plan cannot be denied. In most participant nations, production had reached or surpassed its pre-war level. Above all, the Marshall Plan succeeded in restoring the confidence of a continent that had undergone decades of war Judt, Without the economic aid provided by the Marshall Plan, it is questionable whether the devastated countries of Europe could have recovered to where they are today.
Historians Michael Cox and Caroline Kennedy-Pipe have argued that the Marshall Plan was actually an offensive measure intended to destabilize already established Soviet authority in Eastern Europe. They claim the Plan was meant to offer these countries an ideological choice between Soviet communism and American capitalism. George C. Marshall, U. The most vital piece of evidence used to sustain this claim is in the summary of a discussion on European rehabilitation held by the Policy Planning Staff on May 28, Following a proposal that the plan adopt a pan-European approach to recovery, U.
State Department, ; Cox and Kennedy-Pipe, The Cox and Kennedy-Pipe argument completely clouded my perception of the plan as principally benevolent.
Was it really just another political maneuver in an evolving Cold War climate? If not, what were the true intentions of the U. The postwar world ultimately became a scramble by the two superpowers to fortify and extend their global influence.
Due to their divergent ideologies, each country held profoundly opposing conceptions of what postwar Europe would become. For the United States, the goal was to promote free trade and open markets; for the Soviet Union, the goal was to export communism wherever they could. As tensions mounted, the U. In the United States established its official commitment to contain the spread of communism by announcing the Truman Doctrine, which extended American aid to Greece and Turkey to assist them in their struggles with local communist factions.
By the time the Marshall Plan was first conceived, it had become clear that much of the world was being divided between American-style capitalism and Soviet communism. This process was most pronounced in Europe, which was becoming increasingly polarized between East and West. In George Marshall was faced with daunting political obstacles to the development of a European Recovery Program. The Truman Doctrine, which had just gone into effect, heightened these fears.
If the Marshall Plan was to be accepted by European voters, it would have to avoid being framed in the context of a Soviet-American conflict.
This meant the Plan had to adopt a pan-European framework and allow the Soviet Union to participate in the design process Cromwell, The second obstacle was the issue of domestic approval. The U. Congress was reaching its limits on the appropriation of foreign aid to Europe. Furthermore, most American congressmen were staunch anti-communists. The issue of satisfying Congress—which was responsible for ratifying the plan — practically dictated a Western European focus.
The financial scope of a pan-European approach, the prospect of including countries that had already exhibited communist tendencies as a result of Soviet pressure, and the inclusion of the Soviet Union in the recovery effort practically ensured congressional rejection Cromwell, To meet the needs of both European voters and the U. Congress, George Marshall first proposed a plan that pursued a pan-European framework and opened the door for Soviet participation in its development.
However, Marshall knew that the U. Because the Plan was designed to appear open to Soviet participation, European voters would be more willing to accept it, and because the Plan was formulated to warrant Soviet rejection, Congress would be more disposed to approve it. Had the voters of Europe inferred this objective, they would have certainly rejected the program, fearing that it would lead to a Soviet-American conflict.
Congress, despite its general anti-communist sentiment, would not have approved the substantial expansion of aid required to accomplish European recovery and lure the countries of Eastern Europe into the Western camp — it would have simply cost too much. The Marshall Plan was certainly motivated by more than humanitarian goals, but the objective of pushing the Soviet Union out of Europe was not one of them. This was just too impractical given the political and diplomatic situation in FRUS is a collection of government documents containing communications and memoranda of the U.
State Department. As I explored the documents, it became clear that the Marshall Plan was intended from the beginning to achieve the economic stabilization of Western Europe. State Department, The restriction to Western Europe was an acknowledgement of the East-West division of Europe that was already apparent by However, other FRUS documents reveal that the West European focus also emerged from the recognition that the economies of Western Europe were far more industrialized and had far greater access to vital natural resources than did the countries of Eastern Europe.
Furthermore, the countries of Western Europe provided greater prospects for future economic relationships beneficial to the U. The Marshall Plan was designed to prevent the further advancement of Soviet power in Europe. If the U. The threat to American security, which a devastated or Soviet-dominated European economy would entail, also had a significant domestic component.
As the plan was being developed, U. Thus, along with maintaining U. The American economy was dependent on these markets to sell its surplus goods. If they ceased to exist, then overproduction in the United States would be near impossible to rectify. In the long-run, the aggregate effect of nationwide business failures and unemployment could result in another economic depression.
Despite the claims made by critics, such as Michael Cox and Caroline Kennedy-Pipe, the Marshall Plan was not an offensive measure taken to mitigate established Soviet influence. The Marshall Plan was unquestionably a product of the former. The key word is "exclusive.
By necessitating intra-European cooperation, the Marshall Plan was creating a scenario in which the economic activity of Eastern Europe would be determined by the needs of the other European participants, not the Soviet Union.
My research led to the conclusion that the Marshall Plan represents a defensive measure taken by the United States to secure its previously established interests in Western Europe. From the start, the Marshall Plan was specifically intended to promote the economic recovery of countries within this area. The United States was motivated by two key considerations.
And second, it was imperative that the United States maintain its surplus markets in Europe, specifically in Western Europe because of their future economic potential. The initial design of the Marshall Plan — the adoption of a pan-European framework and permitting of the Soviet Union to partake in the design process — was not intended to represent an offer to the countries of Eastern Europe to choose between Soviet communism and American capitalism.
While it is impossible to claim that the Marshall Plan was solely motivated by humanitarian incentives, it is equally unwarranted to assert that the Marshall Plan was intended to challenge existing Soviet influence in Eastern Europe. However, it is important to recognize that the Marshall Plan was implemented out of a necessity to combat a dire economic situation, which if left unchecked would in all likelihood result in mounting social chaos and human suffering.
Whatever conclusions are drawn, it is impossible to overlook the fact that the aid provided by the Marshall Plan rescued Europe from the edge of the abyss. Its motivations and consequences must always be assessed in comparison to its accomplishments.
Without it, our world would undoubtedly be a very different place. I would like to thank the many dedicated individuals who assisted me in the development of this article. Most of all, I would like to thank my mentor, Professor John Cerullo, for his encouragement and conscientious effort to advance both my research abilities and analytical skill set.
Professor Cerullo has guided me throughout my academic experience at UNH Manchester, facilitating my progression from a young college student with an interest in history to a devoted history major captivated by the past. Another thank you goes to Dr. Robert Macieski for helping me refine my many theses through his multiple reviews and insightful comments.
Finally, I would like to express my gratitude to the University of Wisconsin and the Marshall Foundation, whose online collections were crucial to my research and provided me with a comprehensive understanding of the Marshall Plan. Cox, Michael, and Caroline Kennedy-Pipe. Rethinking the Marshall Plan.
Start of the Cold War - The Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan
Truman Doctrine , pronouncement by U. Harry S. Truman declaring immediate economic and military aid to the governments of Greece , threatened by communist insurrection , and Turkey , under pressure from Soviet expansion in the Mediterranean area. As the United States and the Soviet Union struggled to reach a balance of power during the Cold War that followed World War II , Great Britain announced that it could no longer afford to aid those Mediterranean countries, which the West feared were in danger of falling under Soviet influence. Truman outlined what became known as the Truman Doctrine in a speech to a joint session of Congress on March 12, , in which he emphasized the broader consequences of a failure to protect democracy in Greece and Turkey by saying:.
It was institutionalised in minds by , and in reality in during the Korean war. One way of viewing the division of Europe is as two areas under the dominance of Great powers. Whilst there is no doubt some truth in this for the West of Europe, it is clearly historically demonstrated in the Soviet bloc particularly through its military presence and the manipulation of elections. Western Europe is therefore a more interesting candidate to analyse when viewing the effects of the Marshall Plan and the doctrine of Containment. The formation and direction of the western bloc was much less outwardly directed by America. Those objectives being a contained Soviet Union, integrated economies within an Atlantic framework, the opening of Western Europe to American culture, the establishment of permanent American bases, and keeping the leftist socialist, fascist and communist parties out of power in their respective countries Lundestad
In early , Britain, France, and the United States unsuccessfully attempted to reach an agreement with the Soviet Union for an economically self-sufficient Germany, including a detailed accounting of the industrial plants, goods, and infrastructure already removed by the Soviets. In June , in accordance with the Truman Doctrine, the United States enacted the Marshall Plan, a pledge of economic assistance for all European countries willing to participate, including the Soviet Union. The plan also stated that European prosperity was contingent upon German economic recovery. These would become the main bureaucracies for U. Stalin believed that economic integration with the West would allow Eastern Bloc countries to escape Soviet control, and that the U.
Questioning the Marshall Plan in the Buildup to the Cold War
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Парк был пуст. - Фильтр Х-одиннадцать уничтожен, - сообщил техник. - У этого парня зверский аппетит. Смит начал говорить.
Свет внутри исходил лишь от светящихся компьютерных мониторов Стратмора. - Коммандер! - повторила. - Коммандер. Внезапно Сьюзан вспомнила, что он должен быть в лаборатории систем безопасности.
The Marshall Plan, the Truman Doctrine, and the Division of Europe
Беккер растерялся. Очевидно, он ошибался. Девушка обвила его руками. - Это лето было такое ужасное, - говорила она, чуть не плача.
В трубке раздались длинные гудки. Беккер решил, что трубку поднимут на пятый гудок, однако ее подняли на девятнадцатый. - Городская больница, - буркнула зачумленная секретарша. Беккер заговорил по-испански с сильным франко-американским акцентом: - Меня зовут Дэвид Беккер. Я из канадского посольства. Наш гражданин был сегодня доставлен в вашу больницу.
The Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan
Да, сэр. Шестнадцать часов. Но это не все, сэр. Я запустил антивирус, и он показывает нечто очень странное. - Неужели? - Стратмор по-прежнему оставался невозмутим.
Пиджак защитного цвета от него отделяли теперь уже только десять человек. Беккер шел, низко опустив голову. Халохот прокручивал в голове дальнейшие события. Все было очень просто: подойдя к жертве вплотную, нужно низко держать револьвер, чтобы никто не заметил, сделать два выстрела в спину, Беккер начнет падать, Халохот подхватит его и оттащит к скамье, как друга, которому вдруг стало плохо. Затем он быстро побежит в заднюю часть собора, словно бы за помощью, и в возникшей неразберихе исчезнет прежде, чем люди поймут, что произошло. Пять человек.
Дэвид не мог прийти в. - Но, Сьюзан… я думал… - Он взял ее за дрожащие плечи и повернул к. И тогда он увидел, что Сьюзан вовсе не плакала. - Я не выйду за тебя замуж! - Она расхохоталась и стукнула его подушкой. - До тех пор, пока ты не объяснишь, что такое без воска. Ты сводишь меня с ума.
Это наша главная цель. Простое число.