File Name: philippine governance and the 1987 constitution by ricardo lazo .zip
- Political Science Workbook July Chapter 1 - 3
- The Legal Framework for Local Governance, Innovation and Development
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Situated in the western Pacific Ocean , it consists of about 7, islands that are broadly categorized under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon , Visayas , and Mindanao. The capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City , both within the urban area of Metro Manila. Bounded by the South China Sea to the west, the Philippine Sea to the east, and the Celebes Sea to the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Japan to the northeast, Palau to the east, Indonesia to the south, Malaysia and Brunei to the southwest, Vietnam to the west, and China to the northwest. Pinoy colloquial masculine or neutral Pinay colloquial feminine.
Political Science Workbook July Chapter 1 - 3
Pinoy colloquial masculine or neutral Pinay colloquial feminine. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean , it consists of about 7, islands that are broadly categorized under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon , Visayas , and Mindanao. The capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City , both within the urban area of Metro Manila. Bounded by the South China Sea to the west, the Philippine Sea to the east, and the Celebes Sea to the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Japan to the northeast, Palau to the east, Indonesia to the south, Malaysia and Brunei to the southwest, Vietnam to the west, and China to the northwest.
The Philippines' position as an island country on the Pacific Ring of Fire and close to the equator makes the country prone to earthquakes and typhoons. The country has a variety of natural resources and a globally significant level of biodiversity. As of [update] , it is the 8th-most populated country in Asia and the 12th-most populated country in the world.
Multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. Negritos , some of the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan , a Portuguese explorer leading a fleet for Spain, marked the beginning of Spanish colonization. Spanish settlement, beginning in , led to the Philippines becoming part of the Spanish Empire for more than years.
During this time, Catholicism became the dominant religion, and Manila became the western hub of trans-Pacific trade. In , the Philippine Revolution began, which then became entwined with the Spanish—American War. The ensuing Philippine—American War ended with the United States establishing control over the territory, which they maintained until the Japanese invasion of the islands during World War II. Following liberation , the Philippines became independent in Since then, the unitary sovereign state has often had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by the People Power Revolution.
The Philippines is considered to be an emerging market and a newly industrialized country , which has an economy transitioning from being based on agriculture to being based more on services and manufacturing. Eventually the name " Las Islas Filipinas " would be used to cover the archipelago's Spanish possessions. From the period of the Spanish—American War and the Philippine—American War — until the Commonwealth period — , American colonial authorities referred to the country as the Philippine Islands , a translation of the Spanish name.
The full title of the Republic of the Philippines was included in the constitution as the name of the future independent state. There is evidence of early hominins living in what is now the Philippines as early as , years ago. A small number of bones from Callao Cave potentially represent an otherwise unknown species, Homo luzonensis , that lived around 50, to 67, years ago. The Tabon Man is presumably a Negrito , who were among the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, descendants of the first human migrations out of Africa via the coastal route along southern Asia to the now sunken landmasses of Sundaland and Sahul.
From there, they rapidly spread downwards to the rest of the islands of the Philippines and Southeast Asia. This population assimilated with the existing Negritos resulting in the modern Filipino ethnic groups which display various ratios of genetic admixture between Austronesian and Negrito groups.
The earliest known surviving written record found in the Philippines is the Laguna Copperplate Inscription. By the s, a number of the large coastal settlements had emerged as trading centers, and became the focal point of societal changes. Some polities had exchanges with other states across Asia.
Trade with China is believed to have begun during the Tang dynasty , but grew more extensive during the Song dynasty. By the 2nd millennium CE, some Philippine polities were known to have sent trade delegations which participated in the tributary system of China. Indian cultural traits, such as linguistic terms and religious practices, began to spread within the Philippines during the 10th century, likely via the Hindu Majapahit empire.
The early polities were typically made up of three-tier social structure: a nobility class, a class of "freemen", and a class of dependent debtor-bondsmen. Among the nobility were leaders called " Datus ," responsible for ruling autonomous groups called " barangay " or "dulohan".
When these barangays banded together, either to form a larger settlement or a geographically looser alliance group, the more esteemed among them would be recognized as a "paramount datu", rajah , or sultan which headed the community state. There is little evidence of large-scale violence in the archipelago prior to the 2nd millennium AD. In , Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan arrived in the area, claimed the islands for Spain, and was then killed at the Battle of Mactan. The Spanish successfully invaded the different local states by employing the principle of divide and conquer , bringing most of what is now the Philippines into a single unified administration.
Disparate barangays were deliberately consolidated into towns , where Catholic missionaries were more easily able to convert the inhabitants to Christianity. Manila was the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade. Manila galleons were constructed in Bicol and Cavite. During its rule, Spain quelled various indigenous revolts , as well as defending against external military challenges. Spanish forces included soldiers from elsewhere in New Spain, many of whom deserted and intermingled with the wider population.
Immigration blurred the racial caste system : 98 Spain maintained in towns and cities. War against the Dutch from the West, in the 17th century, together with conflict with the Muslims in the South nearly bankrupted the colonial treasury.
Administration of the Philippine islands were considered a drain on the economy of Spain, and there were debates about abandoning it or trading it for some other territory. However, this was opposed for a number of reasons, including economic potential, security, and the desire to continue religious conversion in the islands and the surrounding region.
The Philippines survived on an annual subsidy provided by the Spanish Crown, which averaged , pesos and was usually paid through the provision of 75 tons of silver bullion being sent from the Americas. British forces occupied Manila from to during the Seven Years' War , with Spanish rule restored through the Treaty of Paris. The Spanish—Moro conflict lasted for several hundred years. In the last quarter of the 19th century, Spain conquered portions of Mindanao and Jolo , and the Moro Muslims in the Sultanate of Sulu formally recognized Spanish sovereignty.
In the 19th century, Philippine ports opened to world trade and shifts started occurring within Filipino society. The Latin American wars of independence and renewed immigration led to shifts in social identity, with the term Filipino shifting from referring to Spaniards born in the Iberian Peninsula and in the Philippines to a term encompassing all people in the archipelago.
This identity shift was driven by wealthy families of mixed ancestry , for which it developed into a national identity. Revolutionary sentiments were stoked in after three activist Catholic priests were executed on weak pretences. This would inspire a propaganda movement in Spain, organized by Marcelo H. Rizal was eventually executed on December 30, , on charges of rebellion.
This radicalized many who had previously been loyal to Spain. The Katipunan started the Philippine Revolution in Internal disputes led to the an election in which Bonifacio lost his position and Emilio Aguinaldo was elected as the new leader of the revolution. In , the Spanish—American War began and reached Philippines. Aguinaldo returned, resumed the revolution, and declared independence from Spain on June 12, After the defeat of the First Philippine Republic, an American civilian government was established.
American forces continued to secure and extend their control over the islands, suppressing an attempted extension of the Philippine Republic , : — securing the Sultanate of Sulu , and establishing control over interior mountainous areas that had resisted Spanish conquest. Cultural developments strengthened the continuing development of a national identity, and Tagalog began to take precedence over other local languages. Quezon's priorities were defence, social justice, inequality and economic diversification, and national character.
Tagalog was designated the national language , women's suffrage was introduced , and land reform mooted. Laurel , was established as a puppet state. From the Japanese occupation of the Philippines was opposed by large-scale underground guerrilla activity.
Atrocities and war crimes were committed during the war, including the Bataan Death March and the Manila massacre. Allied troops defeated the Japanese in By the end of the war it is estimated that over a million Filipinos had died. On October 11, , the Philippines became one of the founding members of the United Nations. On July 4, , the Philippines was officially recognized by the United States as an independent nation through the Treaty of Manila , during the presidency of Manuel Roxas.
Efforts to end the Hukbalahap Rebellion began during Elpidio Quirino 's term, however, it was only during Ramon Magsaysay 's presidency was the movement suppressed. Magsaysay's successor, Carlos P. Garcia , initiated the Filipino First Policy , which was continued by Diosdado Macapagal , with celebration of Independence Day moved from July 4 to June 12, the date of Emilio Aguinaldo's declaration, and pursuit of a claim on the eastern part of North Borneo.
In , Macapagal lost the presidential election to Ferdinand Marcos. Early in his presidency, Marcos initiated numerous infrastructure projects but, together with his wife Imelda , was accused of corruption and embezzling billions of dollars in public funds.
Nearing the end of his term, Marcos declared martial law on September 21, This period of his rule was characterized by political repression, censorship, and human rights violations.
Marcos called a snap presidential election in Marcos was proclaimed the winner, but the results were widely regarded as fraudulent. The resulting protests led to the People Power Revolution , which forced Marcos and his allies to flee to Hawaii , and Aquino's widow, Corazon Aquino , was installed as president. The return of democracy and government reforms beginning in were hampered by national debt, government corruption, coup attempts , a persistent communist insurgency , and a military conflict with Moro separatists.
Aquino was succeeded by Fidel V. Ramos , whose economic performance, at 3. Arroyo's 9-year administration was marked by economic growth, but was tainted by graft and political scandals. On November 23, , 34 journalists and several civilians were killed in Maguindanao.
Economic growth continued during Benigno Aquino III 's administration, which pushed for good governance and transparency. In , a clash which took place in Mamasapano, Maguindanao killed 44 members of the Philippine National Police - Special Action Force , resulting in efforts to pass the Bangsamoro Basic Law reaching an impasse.
Former Davao City mayor Rodrigo Duterte won the presidential election , becoming the first president from Mindanao. Duterte launched an anti-drug campaign and an infrastructure plan. The implementation of the Bangsamoro Organic Law led to the creation of the autonomous Bangsamoro region in Mindanao.
The island of Borneo is located a few hundred kilometers southwest and Taiwan is located directly to the north. Sulawesi is located to the southwest and Palau is located to the east of the islands. The highest mountain is Mount Apo. Manila Bay , upon the shore of which the capital city of Manila lies, is connected to Laguna de Bay , the largest lake in the Philippines, by the Pasig River. The Puerto Princesa Subterranean River , which runs 8. Situated on the western fringes of the Pacific Ring of Fire , the Philippines experiences frequent seismic and volcanic activity.
Pinoy colloquial masculine or neutral Pinay colloquial feminine. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean , it consists of about 7, islands that are broadly categorized under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon , Visayas , and Mindanao. The capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City , both within the urban area of Metro Manila. Bounded by the South China Sea to the west, the Philippine Sea to the east, and the Celebes Sea to the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Japan to the northeast, Palau to the east, Indonesia to the south, Malaysia and Brunei to the southwest, Vietnam to the west, and China to the northwest. The Philippines' position as an island country on the Pacific Ring of Fire and close to the equator makes the country prone to earthquakes and typhoons. The country has a variety of natural resources and a globally significant level of biodiversity.
The Legal Framework for Local Governance, Innovation and Development
Nuncio A good Catholic doesn't meddle in politics. That is not a good path. A good Catholic meddles in politics, offering the best of himself - so that those who govern can govern. Develop critical thinking in defining the nature and scope of politics.
Nuncio A good Catholic doesn't meddle in politics. That is not a good path. A good Catholic meddles in politics, offering the best of himself - so that those who govern can govern.
The politics of the Philippines take place in an organized framework of a presidential , representative, and democratic republic whereby the president is both the head of state and the head of government within a pluriform multi-party system. This system revolves around three separate and sovereign yet interdependent branches : the legislative branch, the executive branch, and the judicial branch. Executive power is exercised by the government under the leadership of the president.