Existentialism Of Human Beings Among The Africans And Christians Pdf

existentialism of human beings among the africans and christians pdf

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Christian existentialism is a theo-philosophical movement which takes an existentialist approach to Christian theology. Christian existentialism relies on Kierkegaard's understanding of Christianity. Kierkegaard argued that the universe is fundamentally paradoxical , and that its greatest paradox is the transcendent union of God and humans in the person of Jesus Christ.

The joy of the gospel [1]. A joy ever new, a joy which is shared []. The delightful and comforting joy of evangelizing [].

The philosophical career of Jean Paul Sartre focuses, in its first phase, upon the construction of a philosophy of existence known as existentialism. Adopting and adapting the methods of phenomenology, Sartre sets out to develop an ontological account of what it is to be human. The main features of this ontology are the groundlessness and radical freedom which characterize the human condition.


Christian existentialism is a theo-philosophical movement which takes an existentialist approach to Christian theology. Christian existentialism relies on Kierkegaard's understanding of Christianity. Kierkegaard argued that the universe is fundamentally paradoxical , and that its greatest paradox is the transcendent union of God and humans in the person of Jesus Christ.

He also posited having a personal relationship with God that supersedes all prescribed moralities, social structures and communal norms, [2] since he asserted that following social conventions is essentially a personal aesthetic choice made by individuals. Kierkegaard proposed that each person must make independent choices, which then constitute their existence. Each person suffers from the anguish of indecision whether knowingly or unknowingly until they commit to a particular choice about the way to live.

Kierkegaard also proposed three rubrics with which to understand the conditions that issue from distinct life choices: the aesthetic, the ethical, and the religious. One of the major premises of Kierkegaardian Christian existentialism entails calling the masses back to a more genuine form of Christianity. This form is often identified with some notion of Early Christianity , which mostly existed during the first three centuries after Christ's crucifixion.

And yet Kierkegaard asserted that by the 19th century, the ultimate meaning of New Testament Christianity love , cf. Another major premise of Kierkegaardian Christian existentialism involves Kierkegaard's conception of God and Love. For the most part, Kierkegaard equates God with Love. Kierkegaard also viewed the individual as a necessary synthesis of both finite and infinite elements.

Therefore, when an individual does not come to a full realization of his infinite side, he is said to be in despair. For many contemporary Christian theologians , the notion of despair can be viewed as sin.

However, to Kierkegaard, a man sinned when he was exposed to this idea of despair and chose a path other than one in accordance with God's will. A final major premise of Kierkegaardian Christian existentialism entails the systematic undoing of evil acts.

Kierkegaard asserted that once an action had been completed, it should be evaluated in the face of God, for holding oneself up to divine scrutiny was the only way to judge one's actions. Because actions constitute the manner in which something is deemed good or bad, one must be constantly conscious of the potential consequences of his actions. Kierkegaard believed that the choice for goodness ultimately came down to each individual.

Yet Kierkegaard also foresaw the potential limiting of choices for individuals who fell into despair. Christian Existentialism often refers to what it calls the indirect style of Christ's teachings, which it considers to be a distinctive and important aspect of his ministry.

Christ's point, it says, is often left unsaid in any particular parable or saying, to permit each individual to confront the truth on his own. A good example of indirect communication in the Old Testament is the story of David and Nathan in 2 Samuel — An existential reading of the Bible demands that the reader recognize that he is an existing subject , studying the words that God communicates to him personally.

This is in contrast to looking at a collection of "truths" which are outside and unrelated to the reader. This is the task Kierkegaard takes up when he asks: "Who has the more difficult task: the teacher who lectures on earnest things a meteor's distance from everyday life, or the learner who should put it to use? Karl Barth added to Kierkegaard's ideas the notion that existential despair leads an individual to an awareness of God's infinite nature.

Russian author Fyodor Dostoevsky could be placed within the tradition of Christian existentialism. The roots of existentialism have been traced back as far as St Augustine. The radical Protestants of the 17th century, for example Quakers may have been in some ways theo-philosophically aligned with radical existential Christianity.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. An existentialist approach to Christian theology. Antinomian controversy Atheistic existentialism Christian anarchism Christian existential apologetics Christian humanism Christian philosophy Eastern Orthodox theology Fideism Free will in theology Gymnobiblism Jewish existentialism Meaning existential Neo-orthodoxy Postliberal theology Postmodern Christianity Presuppositional apologetics Secular theology Theoria.

Adams Encyclopedia of Religion v. Macmillan Publishing Company. Concluding Unscientific Postscript , authored pseudonymously as Johannes Climacus. The Sickness Unto Death Trans.

Palmer Kierkegaard For Beginners. Hong Works of Love. New York, N. Lewis Winter Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 8,1, pp. Lewiston: The Edwin Mellen Press. New York: Pantheon Books, The Existing Christ: an Existential Christology. Philosophy of religion. Eschatological verification Language game Logical positivism Apophatic theology Verificationism. Augustinian theodicy Best of all possible worlds Euthyphro dilemma Inconsistent triad Irenaean theodicy Natural evil Theodicy.

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Religion and Globalization: New Possibilities, Furthering Challenges

Existentialism , any of various philosophies, most influential in continental Europe from about to the midth century, that have in common an interpretation of human existence in the world that stresses its concreteness and its problematic character. According to existentialism: 1 Existence is always particular and individual—always my existence, your existence, his existence, her existence. With respect to the first point, that existence is particular, existentialism is opposed to any doctrine that views human beings as the manifestation of an absolute or of an infinite substance. It is thus opposed to most forms of idealism , such as those that stress Consciousness , Spirit, Reason, Idea, or Oversoul. Second, it is opposed to any doctrine that sees in human beings some given and complete reality that must be resolved into its elements in order to be known or contemplated.

development. To this end, theological existentialism (of the Christian type) a result of their far reaching implications on human life and its destiny. The life of man as a There are verifiable cases of miracles amongst Africans.

African Ethics

Existentialism is associated with several 19th- and 20th-century European philosophers who shared an emphasis on the human subject, despite profound doctrinal differences. The main idea of existentialism during World War II was developed by Jean-Paul Sartre under the influence of Fyodor Dostoevsky and Martin Heidegger , whom he read in a POW camp and strongly influenced many disciplines besides philosophy , including theology, drama, art, literature, and psychology. The term existentialism French : L'existentialisme was coined by the French Catholic philosopher Gabriel Marcel in the mids. Some scholars argue that the term should be used only to refer to the cultural movement in Europe in the s and s associated with the works of the philosophers Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir , Maurice Merleau-Ponty , and Albert Camus. The labels existentialism and existentialist are often seen as historical conveniences in as much as they were first applied to many philosophers long after they had died.

The existential demands of race speak to the necessity of conceptualizing what race is in conjunction with what it means to be human.


The ethics of a society is embedded in the ideas and beliefs about what is right or wrong, what is a good or bad character; it is also embedded in the conceptions of satisfactory social relations and attitudes held by the members of the society; it is embedded, furthermore, in the forms or patterns of behavior that are considered by the members of the society to bring about social harmony and cooperative living, justice, and fairness. The ideas and beliefs about moral conduct are articulated, analyzed, and interpreted by the moral thinkers of the society. African societies, as organized and functioning human communities, have undoubtedly evolved ethical systems—ethical values, principles, rules—intended to guide social and moral behavior. But, like African philosophy itself, the ideas and beliefs of the African society that bear on ethical conduct have not been given elaborate investigation and clarification and, thus, stand in real need of profound and extensive analysis and interpretation.

Ролики хорошо крутились, и стол набирал скорость. Уже на середине комнаты она основательно разогналась. За полтора метра до стеклянной двери Сьюзан отпрянула в сторону и зажмурилась. Раздался страшный треск, и стеклянная панель обдала ее дождем осколков.

Продала кольцо и улетела. Он увидел уборщика и подошел к. - Has visto a una nina? - спросил он, перекрывая шум, издаваемый моечной машиной.  - Вы не видели девушку. Пожилой уборщик наклонился и выключил мотор. - Eh.

The article concludes by looking at how Christianity in Africa should develop an personhood, or being human, the quintessence of human identity and e call for an existential understanding of ubuntu takes cognisance.




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As a contested term, globalization has many definitions, each worthy of merit.

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