Ego Psychology And The Problem Of Adaptation Pdf

ego psychology and the problem of adaptation pdf

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It was brought to full flowering in post-World War II America by Hartmann and his many collaborators, and for over two decades it maintained a monolithic hegemony over American psychoanalysis. Within this framework the conceptions of the psychoanalytic psychotherapies evolved as specific modifications of psychoanalytic technique directed to the clinical needs of the spectrum of patients not amenable to psychoanalysis proper.


Ego psychology is a school of psychoanalysis that originated in Sigmund Freud's ego-id-superego model. After Freud, a number of prominent psychoanalytic theorists began to elaborate on Freud's functionalist version of the ego. They put much effort into theorizing the ego's various functions and how they can be impaired in psychopathology. Much of their work focused around strengthening the ego so it could better cope with the pressures from the id, super-ego, and society in general. The central functions of the ego were traditionally seen as reality-testing, impulse-control, judgment, affect tolerance, defence, and synthetic functioning. An important conceptual revision to Freud's structural theory was made when Heinz Hartmann argued that the healthy ego includes a sphere of autonomous ego functions that are independent of mental conflict. Memory, motor coordination, and reality-testing, for example, ought to be able to function without the intrusion of emotional conflict.

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Ego psychology is a school of psychoanalysis rooted in Sigmund Freud 's structural id-ego-superego model of the mind. An individual interacts with the external world as well as responds to internal forces. Many psychoanalysts use a theoretical construct called the ego to explain how that is done through various ego functions. Adherents of ego psychology focus on the ego's normal and pathological development, its management of libidinal and aggressive impulses, and its adaptation to reality. Sigmund Freud initially considered the ego to be a sense organ for perception of both external and internal stimuli. He thought of the ego as synonymous with consciousness and contrasted it with the repressed unconscious.

This project was conceived several years ago, but its initiation has had to await the availability of a psychoanalytic work of exceptional merit and importance. The editors believe that the appropriate occasion has finally arrived. The timeliness of this decision is attested to by the recent award to Dr. Historically it rep- resents a turning point in the development of modern psy- choanalytic theory. It is a natural sequel to Freud's previous formulations of the structural hypothesis and his contribu- tions to ego psychology. With its appearance there began an evolution in psychoanalytic thought which continues to ramify and the full implications of which for theory and practice are not yet fully realized. To readers intimately acquainted with current psycho- analytic ego psychology, this essay will reveal the first formu- lations of some of its basic concepts.

WE ENCOUNTER the issue of adaptation in psychoanalysis in three contexts: first and mainly as a problem of ego-theory, then as one of the therapeutic aims.

Ego psychology and the problem of adaptation

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This work by Heinz Hartmann, some one hundred pages long, was presented to the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society in , then published in book form in David Rapaport 's English translation appeared in The ideas presented by Hartmann were already well known by then in the United States thanks to the German version, although in Europe , because of the Second World War , they gained wide currency only in the s.

 Я не могу, - повторила.  - Я не могу выйти за тебя замуж.  - Она отвернулась.

Он мечтал о ней по ночам, плакал о ней во сне. Он ничего не мог с собой поделать. Она была блистательна и прекрасна, равной ей он не мог себе даже представить. Его жена долго терпела, но, увидев Сьюзан, потеряла последнюю надежду.

 И. - Итак, ТРАНСТЕКСТ вскрывает один шифр в среднем за шесть минут. Последний файл обычно попадает в машину около полуночи. И не похоже, что… - Что? - Бринкерхофф даже подпрыгнул.

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