File Name: the life and times of william shakespeare .zip
William Shakespeare was an actor, playwright, poet, and theatre entrepreneur in London during the late Elizabethan and early Jacobean eras. At the age of 18 he married Anne Hathaway with whom he had three children. He died in his home town of Stratford on 23 April , aged
William Shakespeare was an English poet, playwright, and actor. He was born on 26 April in Stratford-upon-Avon. His father was a successful local businessman and his mother was the daughter of a landowner.
William Shakespeare was an actor, playwright, poet, and theatre entrepreneur in London during the late Elizabethan and early Jacobean eras. At the age of 18 he married Anne Hathaway with whom he had three children. He died in his home town of Stratford on 23 April , aged Though more is known about Shakespeare's life than those of most other Elizabethan and Jacobean writers, few personal biographical facts survive, which is unsurprising in the light of his social status as a commoner, the low esteem in which his profession was held, and the general lack of interest of the time in the personal lives of writers.
Nevertheless, hundreds of biographies have been written and more continue to be, most of which rely on inferences and the historical context of the 70 or so hard facts recorded about Shakespeare the man, a technique that sometimes leads to embellishment or unwarranted interpretation of the documented record.
William Shakespeare [b] was born in Stratford-upon-Avon. His exact date of birth is not known—the baptismal record was dated 26 April —but has been traditionally taken to be 23 April , which is also the Feast Day of Saint George , the patron saint of England. He was the first son and the first surviving child in the family; two earlier children, Joan and Margaret, had died early.
His parents were John Shakespeare , a successful glover originally from Snitterfield in Warwickshire, and Mary Arden , the youngest daughter of John's father's landlord, a member of the local gentry.
The couple married around and lived on Henley Street when Shakespeare was born, purportedly in a house now known as Shakespeare's Birthplace.
They had eight children: Joan baptised 15 September , died in infancy , Margaret bap. London, 31 December Shakespeare's family was above average materially during his childhood. His father's business was thriving at the time of William's birth. John Shakespeare owned several properties in Stratford and had a profitable—though illegal—sideline of dealing in wool. He was appointed to several municipal offices and served as an alderman in , culminating in a term as bailiff , the chief magistrate of the town council , in For reasons unclear to history he fell upon hard times, beginning in , when William was After four years of non-attendance at council meetings, he was finally replaced as burgess in A close analysis of Shakespeare's works compared with the standard curriculum of the time confirms that Shakespeare had received a grammar school education.
It was free to all male children and the evidence indicates that John Shakespeare sent his sons there for a grammar school education, though no attendance records survive. Shakespeare would have been enrolled when he was 7, in The school day typically ran from 6 a. Grammar schools varied in quality during the Elizabethan era , but the grammar curriculum was standardised by royal decree throughout England,   and the school would have provided an intensive education in Latin grammar and literature—"as good a formal literary training as had any of his contemporaries".
As a part of this education, the students performed Latin plays to better understand rhetoric. By the end of their studies at age 14, grammar school pupils were quite familiar with the great Latin authors, and with Latin drama and rhetoric. Shakespeare is unique among his contemporaries in the extent of figurative language derived from country life and nature. On 27 November , Shakespeare was issued a special licence to marry Anne Hathaway , the daughter of the late Richard Hathaway, a yeoman farmer of Shottery, about a mile west of Stratford the clerk mistakenly recorded the name "Anne Whateley".
The licence, issued by the consistory court of the diocese of Worcester, 21 miles west of Stratford, allowed the two to marry with only one proclamation of the marriage banns in church instead of the customary three successive Sundays. The reason for the special licence appeared six months later with the baptism of their first daughter, Susanna , on 26 May Their twin children, son Hamnet and daughter Judith , named after Shakespeare's neighbours Hamnet and Judith Sadler, were baptised on 2 February , before Shakespeare was 21 years of age.
After the baptism of the twins in , save for being party to a lawsuit to recover part of his mother's estate that had been mortgaged and lost by default, Shakespeare leaves no historical traces until Robert Greene jealously alludes to him as part of the London theatrical scene in This seven-year period, known as the "lost years" to Shakespeare scholars, was filled by early biographers with surmises drawn from local traditions, and by more recent biographers with surmises about the onset of his acting career deduced from textual and bibliographic hints and the surviving records of the various playing troupes of the time.
While this lack of records bars any certainty about his activity during those years, it is certain that by the time of Greene's attack on the year-old Shakespeare he had acquired a reputation as an actor and burgeoning playwright.
Several hypotheses have been put forth to account for his life during this time, and a number of accounts are given by his earliest biographers. According to Shakespeare's first biographer Nicholas Rowe , Shakespeare fled Stratford after he got in trouble for poaching deer from local squire Thomas Lucy , and that he then wrote a scurrilous ballad about Lucy.
It is also reported, according to a note added by Samuel Johnson to the edition of Rowe's Life , that Shakespeare minded the horses for theatre patrons in London. Johnson adds that the story had been told to Alexander Pope by Rowe. In E. J Honigmann proposed that Shakespeare acted as a schoolmaster in Lancashire ,  on the evidence found in the will of a member of the Houghton family, referring to plays and play-clothes and asking his kinsman Thomas Hesketh to take care of "William Shakeshaft, now dwelling with me".
Honigmann proposed that John Cottam, Shakespeare's reputed last schoolmaster, recommended the young man. Another idea is that Shakespeare may have joined Queen Elizabeth's Men in , after the sudden death of actor William Knell in a fight while on a tour which later took in Stratford.
Samuel Schoenbaum speculates that, "Maybe Shakespeare took Knell's place and thus found his way to London and stage-land. Though Shakespeare is known today primarily as a playwright and poet, his main occupation was as a player and sharer in an acting troupe.
How or when Shakespeare got into acting is unknown. The profession was unregulated by a guild that could have established restrictions on new entrants to the profession—actors were literally "masterless men"—and several avenues existed to break into the field in the Elizabethan era. Certainly Shakespeare had many opportunities to see professional playing companies in his youth. Before being allowed to perform for the general public, touring playing companies were required to present their play before the town council to be licensed.
Players first acted in Stratford in , the year that John Shakespeare was bailiff. Before Shakespeare turned 20, the Stratford town council had paid for at least 18 performances by at least 12 playing companies. In one playing season alone, that of —87, five different acting troupes visited Stratford.
By late , Shakespeare was part-owner of a playing company , known as the Lord Chamberlain's Men —like others of the period, the company took its name from its aristocratic sponsor, in this case the Lord Chamberlain. The group became popular enough that after the death of Elizabeth I and the coronation of James I , the new monarch adopted the company and it became known as the King's Men , after the death of their previous sponsor.
Shakespeare's works are written within the frame of reference of the career actor, rather than a member of the learned professions or from scholarly book-learning. The Shakespeare family had long sought armorial bearings and the status of gentleman. William's father John, a bailiff of Stratford with a wife of good birth, was eligible for a coat of arms and applied to the College of Heralds , but evidently his worsening financial status prevented him from obtaining it.
The application was successfully renewed in , most probably at the instigation of William himself as he was the more prosperous at the time. The motto "Non sanz droict" "Not without right" was attached to the application, but it was not used on any armorial displays that have survived.
The theme of social status and restoration runs deep through the plots of many of his plays, and at times Shakespeare seems to mock his own longing. By , Shakespeare had moved to the parish of St. He is also listed among the actors in Jonson's Sejanus: His Fall. Also by , his name began to appear on the title pages of his plays, presumably as a selling point. There is a tradition that Shakespeare, in addition to writing many of the plays his company enacted and concerned with business and financial details as part-owner of the company, continued to act in various parts, such as the ghost of Hamlet's father, Adam in As You Like It , and the Chorus in Henry V.
He appears to have moved across the River Thames to Southwark sometime around In , Shakespeare acted as a matchmaker for his landlord's daughter. Legal documents from , when the case was brought to trial, show that Shakespeare was a tenant of Christopher Mountjoy, a Huguenot tire-maker a maker of ornamental headdresses in the northwest of London in Mountjoy's apprentice Stephen Bellott wanted to marry Mountjoy's daughter.
Shakespeare was enlisted as a go-between, to help negotiate the details of the dowry. On Shakespeare's assurances, the couple married. Eight years later, Bellott sued his father-in-law for delivering only part of the dowry. During the Bellott v Mountjoy case, Shakespeare was called to testify, but said he remembered little of the circumstances. By the early 17th century, Shakespeare had become very prosperous. Most of his money went to secure his family's position in Stratford.
Shakespeare himself seems to have lived in rented accommodation while in London. According to John Aubrey, he travelled to Stratford to stay with his family for a period each year. The Stratford chamberlain's accounts in record a sale of stone to the council from "Mr Shaxpere", which may have been related to remodelling work on the newly purchased house. In the local council ordered an investigation into the hoarding of grain, as there had been a run of bad harvests causing a steep increase in prices.
Speculators were acquiring excess quantities in the hope of profiting from scarcity. The survey includes Shakespeare's household, recording that he possessed ten-quarters of malt.
This has often been interpreted as evidence that he was listed as a hoarder. Others argue that Shakespeare's holding was not unusual. According to Mark Eccles, "the schoolmaster, Mr. Aspinall, had eleven quarters, and the vicar, Mr.
Byfield, had six of his own and four of his sister's". Lewis, however, suggest that he purchased the malt as an investment, since he later sued a neighbour, Philip Rogers, for an unpaid debt for twenty bushels of malt. Shakespeare had established himself in Stratford as the keeper of a great house, the owner of large gardens and granaries, a man with generous stores of barley which one could purchase, at need, for a price.
In short, he had become an entrepreneur specialising in real estate and agricultural products, an aspect of his identity further enhanced by his investments in local farmland and farm produce. Shakespeare's biggest acquisitions were land holdings and a lease on tithes in Old Stratford, to the north of the town. Boehrer suggests he was pursuing an "overall investment strategy aimed at controlling as much as possible of the local grain market", a strategy that was highly successful.
The town clerk Thomas Greene, who opposed the enclosure, recorded a conversation with Shakespeare about the issue. Shakespeare said he believed the enclosure would not go through, a prediction that turned out to be correct.
Greene also recorded that Shakespeare had told Greene's brother that "I was not able to bear the enclosing of Welcombe". It is unclear from the context whether Shakespeare is speaking of his own feelings, or referring to Thomas's opposition. Shakespeare's last major purchase was in March , when he bought an apartment in a gatehouse in the former Blackfriars priory ;  The Gatehouse was near Blackfriars theatre, which Shakespeare's company used as their winter playhouse from The purchase was probably an investment, as Shakespeare was living mainly in Stratford by this time, and the apartment was rented out to one John Robinson.
Robinson may be the same man recorded as a labourer in Stratford, in which case it is possible he worked for Shakespeare. He may be the same John Robinson who was one of the witnesses to Shakespeare's will. Rowe was the first biographer to pass down the tradition that Shakespeare retired to Stratford some years before his death;  but retirement from all work was uncommon at that time,  and Shakespeare continued to visit London.
In he was called as a witness in the Bellott v Mountjoy case. In June Shakespeare's daughter Susanna was slandered by John Lane, a local man who claimed she had caught gonorrhea from a lover.
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William Shakespeare , Shakespeare also spelled Shakspere , byname Bard of Avon or Swan of Avon , baptized April 26, , Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire, England—died April 23, , Stratford-upon-Avon , English poet , dramatist , and actor often called the English national poet and considered by many to be the greatest dramatist of all time. Shakespeare married Anne Hathaway , eight years his senior, when he was They had three children: Susanna and twins Judith and Hamnet. Hamnet died at the age of There is some dispute about how many plays Shakespeare wrote. The general consensus is Shakespeare wrote sonnets.
William. S h ak esp eare: an overview of his life, times, and work an NAC English Theatre The Sanders Portrait: An actual likeness of William Shakespeare?
Shakespeare's life and times
Who was William Shakespeare? What was life like in Stratford-upon-Avon and London when he was alive? Very little is known for certain about William Shakespeare.
This volume in the Writers Lives series offers a reassessment of Shakespeare and his creative output from his earliest work through his 'mature' drama and the late plays, taking into account our current knowledge of Shakespeare's biography and consensus on key textual, critical and theatrical issues. William Baker offers a comprehensive but accessible introduction to Shakespeare's work and places it in the contexts of what is known of his life and activities. Avoiding speculation of a biographical, critical or textual nature, he focuses instead on an account of what is known of Shakespeare and his achievement at the end of the first decade of the twenty-first century. Preface Acknowledgments 1. Early Life: Birth, upbringing, family, marriage.
In this section
Немецкий акцент и просьба снять девушку на ночь - это же очевидная подстава. Интересно, что они еще придумают. Телефон на столе громко зазвонил. Сеньор Ролдан поднял трубку с обычной для него самоуверенностью. - Buenas noches, - произнес мужской голос на беглом испанском; звонивший выговаривал слова чуточку в нос, словно был немного простужен.
ГЛАВА 14 Беккер впился глазами в труп.