File Name: document formatting and typesetting on the unix system .zip
This edition of Formatting Information was prompted by the generous help I have received from T E X users too numerous to mention individually.
- Choosing a LaTeX Compiler
- Latex is a document preparation system
- [PDF] Document Formatting and Typesetting on the Unix System [Read] Online
- Document formatting and typesetting on the UNIX system
Choosing a LaTeX Compiler
This edition of Formatting Information was prompted by the generous help I have received from T E X users too numerous to mention individually. Shortly after TUGboat published the November edition, I was reminded by a spate of email of the fragility of documentation for a system like L A T E X which is constantly under development. There have been revisions to packages; issues of new distributions, new tools, and new interfaces; new books and other new documents; corrections to my own errors; suggestions for rewording; and in one or two cases mild abuse for having omitted package X which the author felt to be indispensable to users.
Please keep them coming: only this way can this book reflect what people want to learn. Many of the screenshots have been updated, and most of the examples and code fragments have been retested.
The author specifically took the writers of documentation to task for failing to explain things more clearly, and as I read more, I found myself agreeing, and resolving to clear up some specific problems areas as far as possible.
It is very difficult for people who write technical documentation to remember how they struggled to learn what has now become a familiar system. So much of what we do is second nature, and a lot of it actually has nothing to do with the software, but more with the way in which we view and approach information, and the general level of knowledge of computing. You are allowed to distribute, reproduce, and modify it without fee or further requirement for consent subject to the conditions in section D.
The author has asserted his right to be identified as the author of this document. If you make useful modifications you are asked to inform the author so that the master copy can be updated.
See the full text of the License in Appendix D. We've now got far enough to typeset what you've entered. I'm assuming at this stage that you have typed some sample text in the format specified in the previous chapter, and you've saved it in a plain-text file with a filetype of. If you haven't already saved your file, do so now some editors and interfaces let you typeset the document without saving it!
Pick a sensible filename in a sensible directory. Names should be short enough to display and search for, but descriptive enough to make sense. Never, ever use directories folders or file names which contain spaces. Although your operating system probably supports them, some don't, and they will only cause grief and tears with T E X. Make filenames as short or as long as you wish, but strictly avoid spaces.
Stick to upper- and lower-case letters without accents A—Z and a—z , the digits 0—9, the hyphen - , and the full point or period. Typesetting your document is usually done by clicking on a button in a toolbar or an entry in a menu. There are dozens of these available: at least one of each previewer and printer driver should have been installed with your distribution of T E X. Depending on which one you choose, you may have to [re]configure your editor so that it runs the right program.
They can all do all of them, but they don't always come pre-set with buttons or menus for every possible option, because they can't guess which one you want. This is to let you see where if! Your editor may suggest you save your file if you haven't already done so. Do it. Turn to section 4. If there were no errors, your file is ready for displaying or printing. This is worth practising even if you normally use a GUI , so that you understand what it does. See Figure 4. Under graphical Unix-based systems Linux and Mac you open a command shell window by clicking on the shell or screen icon in the control panel at the bottom of your screen.
Substitute the relevant directory and file name. Remember to press the Enter key at the end of each line.
L A T E X describes what it's typesetting while it does it, and if it encounters something it doesn't understand or can't do, it will display a message saying what's wrong.
It may also display warnings for less serious conditions. Don't panic if you see error messages : it's very common for beginners to mistype or mis-spell commands, forget curly braces, type a forward slash instead of a backslash, or use a special character by mistake.
Errors are easily spotted and easily corrected in your editor, and you can then run L A T E X again to check you have fixed everything. Some of the most common errors are described in section 4.
The format of an error message is always the same. Error messages begin with an exclamation mark at the start of the line, and give a description of the error, followed by another line starting with the number, which refers to the line-number in your document file which L A T E X was processing when the error was spotted.
You must type one of the following letters to continue:. Warnings don't begin with an exclamation mark: they are just comments by L A T E X about things you might want to look into, such as overlong or underrun lines often caused by unusual hyphenations, for example , pages running short or long, and other typographical niceties most of which you can ignore until later.
While it is certainly possible to set L A T E X 's parameters so that the spacing is sufficiently sloppy that you will almost never get a warning about badly-fitting lines or pages, you will almost certainly just be delaying matters until you start to get complaints from your readers or publishers. Only a few common error messages are given here: those most likely to be encountered by beginners. If you find another error message not shown here, and it's not clear what you should do, ask for help.
Most error messages are self-explanatory, but be aware that the place where L A T E X spots and reports an error may be later in the file than the place where it actually occurred. For example if you forget to close a curly brace which encloses, say, italics, L A T E X won't report this until something else occurs which can't happen until the curly brace is encountered eg the end of the document!
Some errors can only be righted by humans who can read and understand what the document is supposed to mean or look like. Newcomers should remember to check the list of special characters in : a very large number of errors when you are learning L A T E X are due to accidentally typing a special character when you didn't mean to.
This disappears after a few days as you get used to them. Mistypings are the commonest source of error. If your editor has drop-down menus to insert common commands and environments, use them! In this error, the closing curly brace has been omitted from the date. It's the opposite of the error in section 4. This is a warning that L A T E X cannot stretch the line wide enough to fit, without making the spacing bigger than its currently permitted maximum.
The badness 0—10, indicates how severe this is here you can probably ignore a badness of It says what lines of your file it was typesetting when it found this, and the number in square brackets is the number of the page onto which the offending line was printed. The codes separated by slashes are the typeface and font style and size used in the line. Ignore them for the moment: details are in step 11 if you're curious.
And the opposite warning: this line is too long by a shade over 9pt. The chosen hyphenation point which minimises the error is shown at the end of the line Win-. Line numbers and page numbers are given as before. In this case the user has mistyped the name of the paralist package, so it's easy to fix.
However, if you get the name right, but the package is not installed on your machine, you will need to download and install it before continuing see Chapter 5.
Once the file has been processed without errors or even if there are still errors, but you want to see what it's doing with them , standard L A T E X will have created a DVI file with the same name as your document but the filetype. The first time you display your DVI output with a new installation of T E X , there may be a short pause if the previewer needs to create the special bitmaps used for screen previews of some fonts.
These give greater accuracy on low-resolution devices like screens. As you continue to work with L A T E X and your system accumulates these font files, the pause for generating them will disappear. Most previewers have a wide range of scaling, zooming, and measuring functions, but remember this is a picture of your output: you cannot edit the image.
To change it, you always edit your source text and reprocess the file. With xdvi and its derivatives like dviview , you can leave the display window open, and after you've reprocessed your document through L A T E X , moving your mouse back into the window will make the display update automatically click your mouse if your windowing system needs a click to focus.
Figure 4. With a standard three-button mouse you get three levels of micro-zoom to let you inspect fine details. PostScript is a page description language invented by Adobe and used in laser printers and high-end typesetters. It's been the universal standard for electronically-formatted print files for nearly two decades, and all printers and publishers are accustomed to using it.
PDF is a descendant of PostScript, and is rapidly taking over, but PostScript itself is still extremely common, largely because it is very robust, and is usually an ASCII file, which makes it very portable and easy to generate it is actually a programming language in its own right. The drawback is the large size of PostScript files, especially if they contain bitmapped graphics. DVI viewers cannot render some PostScript graphical manipulations like rotating and deforming, so an alternative to viewing the DVI file direct is to generate a PostScript file and use a PostScript viewer.
You may have to to do this for your publisher anyway, and many editors can be configured to do this by default. Look for a dvips toolbar icon or menu entry and click on it. Just type:. To view a PostScript file, you need a PostScript previewer like GSview , which works with the PostScript interpreter Ghostscript , which should have been installed automatically along with your T E X system if not, install both now: GSview is separately licensed and cannot legally be included in some older T E X distributions, so you may have to download it yourself.
GSview can be set to watch the PostScript file and automatically update the display any time the file is changed, without you even having to click on the window. Whereas PostScript is a programming language in itself, PDF is in effect the result of processing a document through PostScript : it's a binary file format, extremely compact, and well-supported on all platforms. Most editors are configured to display a toolbar icon which will pop up Acrobat Reader or some other viewer with the current PDF output file.
Adobe's Acrobat Reader cannot automatically update the view if you reprocess your document, in the way that xdvi and GSview can. It will print perfectly, but Acrobat Reader's display is disappointing. T E X systems print on almost anything from the simplest dot-matrix printers to the biggest phototypesetters, including all the laser printers and a host of other devices in between. How you do it varies slightly according to how you do your typesetting and previewing:.
If not, create a PostScript file and use GSview instead. You can create a PostScript file with dvips see section 4. Both the dvips program and all the previewers that print tend to have facilities for printing selected pages, printing in reverse, scaling the page size, and printing only odd or even pages for two-sided work. If you are using PostScript there are programs for manipulating the output pstops , for example to perform page imposition to get 4, 8, or 16 pages to a sheet for making booklets psnup.
Show that you have understood the process of typesetting, previewing, and printing, by displaying your document and printing it. Their names all start with dvi and are followed by an abbreviation for the printer make or model like dvieps for Epson, dvihp for Hewlett-Packard, dvialw for Apple LaserWriters, etc..
Configure the driver to print directly to the print queue, or pipe it to the print queue manually. On Linux with an HP printer, for example, this would be.
Latex is a document preparation system
This document attempts to explain what Latex is, in under five minutes. Latex is a document preparation system You use Latex to create documents for others to read. In that respect it is similar to Microsoft Word. But the similarities end there. Document preparation with Latex typically consists of using a text editor such as Emacs, vi, or even Notepad to edit a Latex source file , which has the extension. Once the document is in a document interchange format, it can be previewed on the screen, sent to others, printed, etc. What is up with the name "Latex"?
All the major Unix documentation formats except the very newest one are presentation-level markups assisted by macro packages. We examine them here from oldest to newest. We discussed the Documenter's Workbench architecture and tools in Chapter8 as an example of how to integrate a system of multiple minilanguages. Now we return to these tools in their functional role as a typesetting system. The troff formatter interprets a presentation-level markup language.
[PDF] Document Formatting and Typesetting on the Unix System [Read] Online
Normal "difference reports" made from diff. Unified "difference reports" made from diff. Synopsys dc shell scripting language. Z-shell programming language. This option doesn't work when sending to a file, but note that lpr takes the same option see Printing Multiple Copies of a Job.
Document formatting and typesetting on the UNIX system
T e X and associated programs such as L a T e X is a system for computer typesetting of documents. This quality is crucial for complex texts, where the reader's ability to understand the material depends on the clarity with which it is presented. T e X is Free software. It is available on almost every computer that people are using today. For the many advantages of the T e X see below. Due to these advantages, T e X systems are now the standard communication tool in the sciences. For instance, T e X has been adopted by the American Mathematical Society and many other professional societies as their preferred format.
Although Groff input can be written by hand, this is not easy or convenient. Instead, most Groff users write higher-level commands that are translated into the Groff typesetting language by one or more preprocessors. Several macro packages and preprocessors exist for producing different kinds of documents reports, books, UNIX manual pages, etc. It provides the following macro packages and preprocessors for Groff:.
Texinfo is a typesetting syntax used for generating documentation in both on-line and printed form creating filetypes as dvi , html , pdf , etc. It is implemented by a computer program released as free software of the same name, created and made available by the GNU Project from the Free Software Foundation. The main purpose of Texinfo is to provide a way to easily typeset software manuals. Similar to the LaTeX syntax, all the normal features of a book, such as chapters, sections, cross references, tables and indices are available for use in documents. Using the various output generators that are available for Texinfo, it is possible to keep several documentation types up-to-date such as on-line documentation provided via a Web site, and printed documentation, as generated using the TeX typesetting system using only a single source file.
Armstrong and David B. Horvath, CCP. Versions of these products and others are available for UNIX systems, but the most common are the nroff and troff text processors. In the early s, Joe Ossanna rewrote roff to produce nroff. He added flexibility and an internal programming language to aid in document formatting.
The styles, contents and layout in a L a T e X document are defined by means of tags or commands in a plain. The easiest way to generate this final output is to use Overleaf. Overleaf has a ready-to-use L a T e X distribution and final documents can be generated by simply clicking the "Recompile" button; if this is your case you can skip this article.