File Name: difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic transcription .zip
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- The Difference Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Gene Expression
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- Transcription in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes (With Diagram)
To understand how gene expression is regulated, we must first understand how a gene codes for a functional protein in a cell.
Prokaryotes regulate gene expression by controlling the amount of transcription, whereas eukaryotic control is much more complex. To understand how gene expression is regulated, we must first understand how a gene codes for a functional protein in a cell. The process occurs in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, just in slightly different manners.
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Prokaryotes and eukaryotes perform fundamentally the same process of transcription, with a few key differences. With the genes bound in a nucleus, the eukaryotic cell must be able to transport its mRNA to the cytoplasm and must protect its mRNA from degrading before it is translated. Eukaryotes also employ three different polymerases that each transcribe a different subset of genes. Eukaryotic mRNAs are usually monogenic , meaning that they specify a single protein. Unlike the prokaryotic polymerase that can bind to a DNA template on its own, eukaryotes require several other proteins, called transcription factors, to first bind to the promoter region and then to help recruit the appropriate polymerase. The features of eukaryotic mRNA synthesis are markedly more complex than those of prokaryotes. Instead of a single polymerase comprising five subunits, the eukaryotes have three polymerases that are each made up of 10 subunits or more.
There are many differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Some of these differences are structural whereas others are procedural. Two of the processes that are substantially different between prokaryotes and eukaryotes are gene expression and the regulation of it. Both types of cells transcribe DNA into mRNA, which is then translated into polypeptides, but the specifics of these processes differ. Prokaryotes lack nuclei and other organelles, which are specialized, membrane-bound compartments, whereas eukaryotes do have them. In fact, the word "eukaryote" means "true nucleus.
Eukaryotic transcription is the elaborate process that eukaryotic cells use to copy genetic information stored in DNA into units of transportable complementary RNA replica. Unlike prokaryotic RNA polymerase that initiates the transcription of all different types of RNA, RNA polymerase in eukaryotes including humans comes in three variations, each translating a different type of gene. A eukaryotic cell has a nucleus that separates the processes of transcription and translation. Eukaryotic transcription occurs within the nucleus where DNA is packaged into nucleosomes and higher order chromatin structures. The complexity of the eukaryotic genome necessitates a great variety and complexity of gene expression control. Eukaryotic transcription proceeds in three sequential stages: initiation, elongation, and termination.
The Difference Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Since prokaryotic cells typically have only a single, circular chromosome, they can replicate faster than eukaryotic cells. In fact, a prokaryotic cell can undergo two rounds of DNA replication before the cell, itself, has divided. This means that DNA replication can occur during cell division in prokaryotes. Since eukaryotic cells typically have multiple linear chromosomes, capped with telomeres, eukaryotic DNA replication and cell division mitosis and meiosis are a bit more complicated. In addition, the telomeres—repeating DNA sequences at the ends of each chromosome—limit the number of times a cell can divide before it dies or becomes senescent. Each time a typical or somatic eukaryotic cell divides, the telomeres get shorter.
Let us make an in-depth study of transcription synthesis of RNA in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In prokaryotic organisms transcription occurs in three phases known as initiation, elongation and termination. This form is called the holoenzyme. Transcription cannot start randomly but must begin specifically at the start of a gene. Signals for the initiation of transcription occur in the promoter sequence which lies directly upstream of the transcribed sequence of the gene. The exact sequences can vary between promoters but all conform to an overall pattern known as the consensus sequence. When the enzyme binds to the promoter it initially forms a closed promoter complex in which the promoter DNA remains as a double helix.
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Transcription in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes (With Diagram)
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This post summarizes the overall similarities and differences between the Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic transcription in a detailed but easy way. Similarities between.