File Name: energy efficiency and management in food processing facilities .zip
- Energy Efficiency and Management in Food Processing Facilities [1ed.]1420063383, 9781420063387
- Energy efficiency technologies for sustainable food processing
- Energy efficiency technologies for sustainable food processing
Energy Efficiency and Management in Food Processing Facilities [1ed.]1420063383, 9781420063387
Climate change is a very complex topic. It is mainly caused by interactions of multiple variables which are influencing factors for climate systems . The modification of single element has the potential to affect the global climatic situation, for example an increase of the greenhouse effect .
Because of an enormous environmental impact, the focus of many scientific researches discusses the topic of greenhouse-gas-emissions. Many of these gases like CO 2 , methane or ozone are responsible for creating an imbalance of the natural atmospheric conditions leading to climate change .
The generation of electricity can be considered as the baseline of this increase, in order to provide overcoming production needs for society . The assessment and following management of resources, particularly electricity, in order to diminish the environmental impact of production processes, empowered by social claiming, are getting important and it has to be taken in consideration for many industrial sectors . The meat processing industry needs to be assessed on the basis of the energy consumption.
In this type of industrial sector, there are many enterprises which can be considered as high energy consumers. Among the different energy types which are used in meat processing facilities, the use of electricity is figured out as the dominating one . Highlighting the necessity to assess and manage the energy consumption is required in order to reduce the environmental impact, such as its equivalent in carbon dioxide emissions . In general, meat-processing companies need to comply with regulations established for the food industry, which means in this case that the conventional use of energy will be directed to maintain the cold and preserving the meat during the whole production process .
In this paper, an analysis about the characterization of the energy consumption within a meat processing company located in Hermosillo, Sonora is included. In addition, a proposal for strategic energy management focusing on high consumer types of facilities is presented. The results aim to create a systematic approach on energy management more suitable to processes in the food industry. The paper is organized as follows: Section 2 discusses the methodological approach.
Section 3 introduces the results obtained and Section 4 evaluates opportunities for sustainable energy management. Section 5 provides discussions and conclusions and finally Section 6 presents future work needed. For a facilitated comprehension of the energy consumption and in order to derive improvement measures an explorative case study was conducted.
Basically an energy audit was performed in a meat processing industry, located in northwest region of Mexico, hereinafter referred as Company A. Energy audits are defined as an inspection, survey and analysis of energy consumptions of an industrial site, its buildings and processes aimed at reducing the amount of energy input without negatively affecting the outputs  , i. Although the way how an energy audit is carried out depends on characteristics and approaches of the audited company  , general elements of an energy audit are:.
The energy-related data, which was compiled during the audit, got used for the elaboration of the case study and aims to reduce the gap between the negative environmental impact of production processes and energy consumption.
Identification and assessment of significant correlations between energy consumption and the activities carried out in the processing plant. This company benchmarking were made within the type-specific industrial sector.
The audit performed can be considered as a Type 1 energy audit according to ISO They serve as preliminary audits for larger facilities. It is the least costly audit, but allows, however, a high-level energy review, i. Major outputs to be expected from Type 1 audits is a basic understanding of on- site energy consumption and related hot spots as well as a list of low-cost and easy-to-implement energy efficiency improvement measures see Chart 9.
For a more detailed and in-depth analyze and on order to legitimate cost-intensive improvement measures, a higher technical resolution and expanded scope of the energy analysis is recommended. This facility has the capacity to handle cattle carcasses daily. This facility is able to process up to cattle carcasses. Depending on the need of production the plant is able to increase or decrease production. The total plant includes several areas and processes in both production and administrative departments, including all the areas the total dimension of the plant is above square meters.
It is important to understand that in concordance with regulations on meat processing facilities some areas of the production process need to comply with certain temperatures in order to keep the food process innocuous. The energy audit requires to include the utilization of energy within the system, it is necessary to categorize the energy consumers in a way that the high consumers of energy can be identified, the structure of categorization in the plant has been made by thermal areas, see Figure 1 , in concordance of the processes of the company and more important with the temperature that its needed to comply according to federal and international laws inside food processing industries.
The energy audit includes information within the period from until Data acquisition in this reference period provides a more or less detailed representation of the energy input and consumption values. The availability of many comparative data within this reference period gives the possibility to filter out values, which are describing energy consumption factors that were caused by exceptional situations.
The annual recording and analysis of utilized energy sources includes a usage and cost assessment, the data obtained from the energy billing history can be used to understand the pattern of use and cost of consumption over time. To represent negative environmental impacts derived from the electricity consumption, standard ratios are used to convert the use of kWh into equivalent amounts of CO 2.
Using the methodology based on emission factors, which is the most appropriate and practical method to measure greenhouse gas GHG emissions, it estimates the GHG emissions by the multiplication of activity data e. Figure 1. Thermal areas division. Activity data values are listed on energy bills or energy-related documents of the provider. The emission factor depends on the electricity mix of each country. This value is a quantity number of atmospheric pollution by the use of electricity.
In Chart 1, the annual consumption of the used energy sources at the company and their detailed carbon equivalent in metric tons are described. To understand the utilization of energy within the company processes, it is necessary to categorize the energy consumers in order to identify the main consumers. In this case study, the classification was made by thermal areas, which in concordance with the needs of production processes, share similar characteristics such as temperature and isolation.
This separation allows the definition of clear and achievable goals in order to improve energy efficiency. Chart 2 describes the thermal zones defined for this case study and the shared characteristics within the system. Chart 1. Energy input for company A. Chart 2. Thermal zones for company A. Figure 2. Mexican energy mix . Several categories were defined according to the main company processes including production, heating, VAC and information technology IT.
The most valuable information about the energy consumption in each main company process can be delivered by the help of energy meters. Unfortunately are in Company A just meters installed which measure the total energy consumption in the whole production plant. To allegorize roughly the distribution on a percentage basis of the energy consumption for each process category, it is also sufficient to calculate by the help of the maximum power values from the equipment type plates and the daily operation hours the daily energy consumption per category.
The inventory list, which is organized in terms of their functional application, includes information about the energy consumption. In Chart 3, the proportion of daily energy consumption and the environmental impact, expressed as CO 2 equivalents is illustrated.
The daily consumption of Company A was identified in a total as 50, By the categorization of the processes, the main energy consumer can be distinguished. The following energy resources are being used in the company:. Figure 3 shows that the resource that is mostly consumed is electricity.
The computed percentages do not include the consumption in the factory canteen and the laundry, which one of the reasons for share of natural and LP gas on the total amount of consumed energy. Reviewing the power rates of the electrical line, transformers and compressors helps with the identification of potential opportunities for an energetic improvement. Company A gets the electrical supply by an integrated three phase electrical system.
A summary of the lighting system description, including the energy usage for the lighting category, is shown in Chart 4. From the information of the obtained data, HID illumination appliances are revealed as main consumers. The evaluation of the luminance levels in different work areas is a valuable cross reference to identify if the lighting.
Figure 3. Daily energy consumption by category. Chart 3. Daily based recording of energy consumers. Chart 4. Lighting system description. This information will enable the detection of improvement opportunities on the visibility conditions and on the other hand to discover energy saving measurements. For the determination of the average luminance, it is necessary to divide the building parts into a number of equal areas.
A lux meter indicates only the luminance in one point and not the average luminance, making it necessary to get an average of the Level of illumination measured in lux at each measured point.
The purpose of this evaluation consists on making an assessment to detect certain areas that might have deficits or an excessive usage of lights. Chart 5 describes the current illumination levels compared to the minimal required value of illumination expressed in Lux. From the acquired data, four thermal zones were detected to be above the required levels of illumination.
This visibility assessment also provides information on other thermal zones working with less lighting than needed. The information is useful for the company to improve the quality of lightening and the required illumination levels. It is necessary to conduct measures, which can direct to the reduction on the use of electricity without altering the outcome of the production processes.
An infrared audit, a thermal mapping of a surface, is useful in the process of energy assessment. This non- invasive technique allows to obtain thermographic images with an infrared camera. These images can support energy audits by highlighting energy inefficiencies on buildings and facilities. The thermographic analysis is very useful for evaluating building energy performance, both for envelope and facilities. With correct interpretation, the thermal images can reveal potential problems within the electrical systems and processes.
Also, this data can be translated into significant information about energy performance. Which, later on, can be the translated into improvement opportunities that can have significant relevance for the company. The thermal images obtained with the use of this camera are able to reveal, if existing, problems from sources of energy losses, moisture intrusion and structural issues to overheating electrical and mechanical equipment . Chart 6 shows a description of the assessed components were thermographic images were obtained.
Energy efficiency technologies for sustainable food processing
Jump to main content or area navigation. You will need Adobe Reader to view some of the files on this page. Industries like oil refineries , semiconductors manufacturers, and facilities that process fruits, vegetables and meat require large amounts of water to provide us valuable social goods like gasoline, computers and food. Saving energy saves water. The Department of Energy also provides ample information directed at industry plant managers and engineers on how to boost the bottom line.
Energy efficiency technologies for sustainable food processing
Sergio E. Governments and private companies have increased efforts to identify effective actions for improving energy efficiency in manufacturing processes. The objective of this work is to improve the decision-making process by increasing the quality of information related to energy indicators in the food industry.
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Haynes ManualsThe Haynes Author : Lijun Wang Description:Energy efficiency, environmental protection, and processing waste management continue to attract increased attention in the food processing industry. As with other industrial sectors, reducing costs while also reducing environmental impact and improving overall sustainability is becoming an important part of the business process. Providing practical guidance, Energy Efficiency and Management in Food Processing Facilities explores energy efficiency technologies, emerging energy efficient processes, and methods for converting food processing wastes into energy. Organized around five central themes, the book explores: Fundamentals of energy conservation, analysis, and management Energy conservation technologies as applied to the food processing industry Energy efficiency and conservations in current food processing systems Emerging systems Energy conversion technologies for utilization of food processing wastes Conservation Techniques that Improve the Bottom Line The lack of information on energy conservation and conversion technologies has been a major barrier to energy efficiency improvement and the utilization of processing wastes in the food processing industry. With coverage ranging from basic theory to traditional and alternative energy, this book provides the required skill set for the increased energy conservation and reduced consumption that will positively impact the bottom line in food processing facilities. Categories: Technology Energy.
- ТРАНСТЕКСТ вышел из строя.
Сьюзан едва ли не физически ощутила повисшее молчание. Оно показалось ей нескончаемо долгим. Наконец Стратмор заговорил.
Он был уже совсем. Правой рукой, точно железной клешней, он обхватил ее за талию так сильно, что она вскрикнула от боли, а левой сдавил ей грудную клетку. Сьюзан едва дышала. Отчаянно вырываясь из его рук, Сьюзан локтем с силой ударила Хейла.