File Name: economics of gender and development in hindi .zip
- Gender Differences in Determinants and Consequences of Health and Illness
- Gender and Development: basic concepts
- Trade & Gender
Gender Differences in Determinants and Consequences of Health and Illness
Gender is a complex variable that is a part of social, cultural, economic and political contexts. It is also relevant for the work of civil society movements. Gender refers to socially constructed differences between men and women, whereas Sex refers to biological differences between men and women.
Sexual differences vary little across these variables. Development analysts have recognized now for several decades the need to ensure that gender is examined and integrated into development projects. In integrating gender into development, practitioners are responding to the priority needs of women and men, and being aware of what benefits or adverse effects could impact either. In taking account of gender, development practitioners and social movement activists are looking at disparities that exist in male and female rights, responsibilities, access to and control over resources, and voice at household, community and national levels.
Men and women often have different priorities, constraints and preferences with respect to development and can contribute to, and be affected differently by, development projects and campaigning interventions. To enhance effectiveness, these considerations must be addressed in all program and campaign design and interventions. If such considerations are not addressed thoughtfully and adequately, these interventions can lead not only to inefficient and unsustainable results, but may also exacerbate existing inequities.
Understanding gender issues can enable projects to take account of these and build in capacity to deal with inequitable impacts and to ensure sustainability.
When we talk about Gender Equality, we are referring to a combination of legal equality and equal opportunities including opportunities to speak out. More often, this is about making better opportunities in all of these areas for women.
An optional protocol was later developed setting out a mechanism by which states would be held accountable to the treaty. These include the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action , and the Millennium Development Goals which include gender considerations in almost half of the clauses.
The MDGs have been mutually reinforcing; progress toward one goal affects progress toward the others. But, the third goal addresses gender equality specifically. An early approach involved targeting women by project design and interventions which focused on women as a separate group. This aimed to enable women to participate on an equal basis with men in determining their common future.
The Gender Equality approach is therefore about men and women and is thus a more comprehensive approach to analysis and design of development interventions because it takes into account the situation and needs of both men and women.
It aims to involve both women and men in addressing their development problems, to reform institutions to establish equal rights and opportunities, and to foster economic development which strengthens equal participation. Such an approach aims to redress persistent disparities in access to resources and the ability to speak out. It has also been recognised by specialists and activists in this field that the behaviour of men needs to be addressed in the context of gender work.
Unless men challenge themselves as to the ways in which their own behaviour, attitudes and upbringing perpetuates gender inequality, gender injustice and gender violence,  nothing will change. For more than two decades now, a growing number of programmes addressing these issues have been developed in various parts of the world and the learning shared and adapted to new contexts.
Among the most well known have been the programmes of Puntos de Encuentro and Cantera in Nicaragua, and its programmes on male behaviour change. Another example, Stepping Stones, a small group intervention using participatory learning to help improve sexual health, began in Uganda but was adapted for different countries across sub Saharan Africa including Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania and Zambia, as well as for the Philippines.
Throughout the globe people are organising both to challenge and end gender injustice in all areas of our social, economic, political, and cultural lives. To be successful, however, these struggles need to include and prioritise gender equality within their own organisational structures as well as being part of the analysis and methodology for change. This is a deeply political issue at a variety of levels. Although social movements are trying to address this, activists still come up against strong resistance to changing gendered politics and practices even within the contexts of movements and allied organisations.
Nevertheless, when it comes to making an impact on transforming gender power relations, social movements are crucial. Integrating gender perspectives into social movements and activism is not just about 'including' women or 'thinking about' men and gender minorities.
It means considering what a gendered politics provides in terms of alternative ways of being, seeing and doing that in themselves serve to transform patriarchal power relations. See Bott, S. Morrison, A. English Bahasa Indonesia. Related categories Theme Women Human rights. Publication Newsletter articles.
Region International. The need for gender justice. To prevent automated spam submissions leave this field empty. International Newsletter articles Human rights Women. Papuan women participants at community workshop, Bintuni, DTE. Credits Login.
Gender and Development: basic concepts
Media play important roles in society. They report on current events, provide frameworks for interpretation, mobilise citizens with regard to various issues, reproduce predominant culture and society, and entertain Llanos and Nina, As such, the media can be an important actor in the promotion of gender equality, both within the working environment in terms of employment and promotion of female staff at all levels and in the representation of women and men in terms of fair gender portrayal and the use of neutral and non-gender specific language. White, A. This handbook aims to assist people working in the media to assess progress on gender equality, identify challenges, and contribute to debates and policy formulation. It urges those working in the media to do more to confront gender distortions in newsrooms and in unions. See full text.
Read "Economics Of Gender And Development" by A. Ranjan available from Rakuten Kobo. Women are essential to economic growth in developing countries.
Trade & Gender
Gender and development is an interdisciplinary field of research and applied study that implements a feminist approach to understanding and addressing the disparate impact that economic development and globalization have on people based upon their location, gender, class background, and other socio-political identities. Accounting for this need, gender and development implements ethnographic research, research that studies a specific culture or group of people by physically immersing the researcher into the environment and daily routine of those being studied,  in order to comprehensively understand how development policy and practices affect the everyday life of targeted groups or areas. The history of this field dates back to the s, when studies of economic development first brought women into its discourse,   focusing on women only as subjects of welfare policies — notably those centered on food aid and family planning.
We need gender equality urgently. Find out what gender equality means and why it's important. Gender equality is when people of all genders have equal rights, responsibilities and opportunities.