File Name: premalignant lesions and conditions of oral cavity .zip
- Clinical and Histopathological Aspects of Premalignant Lesions
- Techniques for Precancerous Lesion Diagnosis
- Premalignant Conditions of the Oral Cavity
A precancerous condition is a condition or lesion involving abnormal cells which are associated with an increased risk of developing into cancer. Some of the most common precancerous conditions include certain colon polyps , which can progress into colon cancer , monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance , which can progress into multiple myeloma or myelodysplastic syndrome. Sometimes the term "precancer" is also used for carcinoma in situ , which is a noninvasive cancer that has not progressed to an aggressive, invasive stage.
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Clinical and Histopathological Aspects of Premalignant Lesions
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You can change your ad preferences anytime. Premalignant lesions and conditions. Upcoming SlideShare. Like this presentation? Why not share! Embed Size px. Start on. Show related SlideShares at end. WordPress Shortcode. Published in: Education. Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No. Mashmoom Naik. Sreelakshmi Balakrishnan. Kabita Sapkota. Show More. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. No notes for slide. Premalignant lesions and conditions 1.
Premalignant lesions Premalignant conditions Leukoplakia Oral submucous fibrosis Erythroplakia Oral lichen planus Leukokeratosis nicotina palatinae Actinic keratosis Candidiasis Syphilis Carcinoma in situ Discoid lupus erythematosus 5. Buccal mucosa involvement Tongue Involvement Lip 9. Homogenous Leukoplakia Non-homogenous Leukoplakia Hairy Leukoplakia Hairy leukoplakia is a condition that is characterised by irregular white patches on the side of the tongue and occasionally elsewhere on the tongue or in the mouth.
The technique involves freezing the mucosa with the cryoprobe for 1. Thicker lesions may require 2 to Vaporisation 1. To excise a patch of leukoplakia, the laser is used to cut around the margins, which can be held in tissue forceps while the laser undermines the leukoplakic patch. Vaporisation of leukoplakia is by moving the laser beam back and forward across the surface of lesion. It has the risk of leaving small bits of abnormal tissue which are deep under thickly keratinized tissue. Treatment Cessation of Smoking Krusei etc.
Although occasionally preceded by or associated with vesicle formation ,it is always associated with juxta- epithelial inflammatory reaction followed by a fibro-elastic changes of the lamina propria with epithelial atrophy leading to stiffness of the oral mucosa and causing trismus and inability to eat.
Etiology 1. Defective iron metabolism 3. Bacterial Infection 4. Collagen disorder 5. Immunological disorders 6. Nutritional deficiency 7. Genetic disorder.
Restricted mouth opening Fibrosi s Prodromal symptoms Initial symptoms Later 1 Burning sensation on eating spicy food 2 Blisters on the palate 3 Ulceration or recurrent stomatitis 4 Excessive salivation 5Defective gustatory sensation 6 Dryness of mouth. Sometimes pain in ear and speech is affected. On examination there in increasing amount of fibrosis in the submucosa.
This causes blanching of mucosa. Also there may be evidence of leukoplakia. The course of 5 injections is repeated after 7 days. Steroids Local:- Hydrocortisone injection along with procaine hydrochloride injection locally in the area of Fibrosis. The Fibrosis is prevented by decreasing fibroblastic production and the deposition of collegen Hyaluronidase: Decreases cell formation by virtue of its action on hyaluronic acid ,Which plays an important role in collagen formation.
It is done in patients who have got mouth opening less than 1. B Implantation of fresh human placenta C Nasolabial flap:- The excision of fibrotic bands is followed by reconstruction using bilateral full thickness Nasolabial flap D Bilateral palatal flap :- E Oral stent:- a stent is an appliance made up of acrylic having posterior vertical stops bilaterally.
Made for decrease mouth opening and to allow the tissue to heal at new height. F Laser:- Technique :- under general anaesthesia a co2 laser is used to incise the buccal mucosa and vaporize the submucosal connective tissue to the level of buccinator muscle.
Hemostasis is provided by lased surface itself and the mouth opening increases immediately. Nasolabial flap Vertical incision in nasolabial flap Cryosurgery It is method of local destruction of tissue by freezing it. Oral physiotherapy Oral exercises for advised in early and moderately advanced cases. This includes mouth opening and Ballooning of mouth. Forceful mouth opening have been tried with mouth gag and acrylic surgical screw Diathermy Lichen planus Erasmus Wilson described it in It is the probable precancerous condition.
Itching provokes rubbing off the region rather than scratching. Buccal mucosa involvement Tongue involvemen Six Ps of lichen planus Planar,polygonal,purple,pruritic,papules and plaques Vaginogingival syndrome:- Oral lesions coexisting which genital mucosal lesions known as Vaginogingival syndrome Colour:- Red but soon takes reddish purple. Later,dirty brown color develops. Complication:- Post inflammatory hyperpigmentation,malignancy from oral lesions,dystrophy.
Cell mediated immune response 2. Auto immunity:- the activated t lymphocytes also secret Gamma interferon which induce keratinocytes to produce HLA-DR and increase their rate of differentiation with formation of thickened surface.
Immunodeficiency:- decreased serum levels of IgG,IgA or IgM in lichen planus, but at the same time, reports of normal concentrations of IgA and IgM are found, therefore the role of immunodeficiency is questionable.
Genetic factors:- Familial cause might be environmental and related to infection,rather than genetics. Infection:- bacterial etiology maybe there but results are not confirmed. Psychogenic factor:- stress and neurogenic basis is suggested. Observation mostly in nervous and highly stressed person is associated with emotional upset, overwerk and some form mental strain. Habits:- habit of chewing tobacco and betel.
Smoking may play a role in initiating oral lichen planus of plaque type. Types:- Reticular,papular,plaque,atrophic,classical,erythematous,ulcerative,hyper trophic,erosive,bullous,hypertrophied,annular,actinic,follicular,linear. Full steroid dose is required.
Combination of Prednisolone and levamisole:- Prednisolone 5mg and levamisole 50mg tablets for first three days of rest and this schedule to be followed for two to three more weeks Topical application of antifungal agent:- Nystatin and ketoconazole.
Vitamin A retinoid analogy:- Topical vitamin A Acid cream 0. Lichenoid reaction Lichenoid reactions where differentiated from lichen planus on the basis of association of lichenoid reaction with administration of drugs and systemic disease and their resolution when the drug was discontinued.
Etiopathogenesis:- 1. Disorders:- lichen planus,lupus erythematous,erythema multiform,fixed drug eruption,secondary syphilis. Drugs and chemical:- - Antimicrobial:- Dapsone,para-aminosalicylate,streptomycin and tetracycline -Anti-parasitic:- Chloroquine and quinacrine -Antihypertensives:- Chlorothiazide,hydrochlorothiazide,labetalol,methyldopa,mercurial diuretic and practolol. Lichenoid dermatitis Lichenoid reaction Diagnosis Lichen planus type lesion with drug history will Diagnosis lichenoid reaction Management Majority of it are resolved after discontinuation of drug Thank You.
Techniques for Precancerous Lesion Diagnosis
Most precancerous lesions and conditions have an elevated rate of These lesions of oral cavity have multi-factorial etiology with Available from: http://elmhurstskiclub.org%elmhurstskiclub.org 7.
Premalignant Conditions of the Oral Cavity
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The development of the oral squamous cell carcinoma OSCC is a multistep process that requires the accumulation of multiple genetic alterations usually preceded by detectable mucosal changes, most often leukoplakias and erythroplakias. The clinical appearance of oral precancerous lesions and their degree of epithelium dysplasia suggests the malignization potential. Several techniques have been developed to improve the clinical and cytological diagnosis of oral precancerous lesions.
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Journal of Oncology
Oral Oncology pp Cite as. Carcinoma of the oral cavity may be associated with or preceded by lesions that carry a serious risk of malignant changes. These so-called precancerous lesions may precede the development of carcinoma by months or by years. According to the present viewpoints, the following pathological lesions and conditions are considered premalignant: leukoplakia, erythroplakia, and submucous fibrosis. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
Oral cancers form a significant portion of the cancer burden seen in our country. Typically, they tend to be preceded by a premalignant state for a long time. This article discusses the various types of premalignant disorders commonly seen in daily practice. Also, it is important to screen patients for these conditions so as to detect malignant changes early. Previously, the screening of patients for oral cancer and precancerous lesions has relied mainly on conventional oral examination.
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