Vitamins And Their Functions Pdf

vitamins and their functions pdf

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Published: 17.05.2021

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Vitamins are a group of substances that are needed for normal cell function, growth, and development.

Vitamins help your body grow and work the way it should. There are 13 essential vitamins — vitamins A, C, D, E, K, and the B vitamins thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, B 6 , B 12 , and folate. Vitamins have different jobs to help keep the body working properly. Some vitamins help you resist infections and keep your nerves healthy, while others may help your body get energy from food or help your blood clot properly.

Vitamins: Their Functions and Sources

Vitamins help your body grow and work the way it should. There are 13 essential vitamins — vitamins A, C, D, E, K, and the B vitamins thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, B 6 , B 12 , and folate. Vitamins have different jobs to help keep the body working properly. Some vitamins help you resist infections and keep your nerves healthy, while others may help your body get energy from food or help your blood clot properly. By following the Dietary Guidelines , you will get enough of most of these vitamins from food.

Like vitamins, minerals also help your body function. Minerals are elements that our bodies need to function that can be found on the earth and in foods. Some minerals, like iodine and fluoride, are only needed in very small quantities. Others, such as calcium, magnesium, and potassium, are needed in larger amounts. As with vitamins, if you eat a varied diet , you will probably get enough of most minerals. It is usually better to get the nutrients you need from food, rather than a pill.

Most older people can get all the nutrients they need from foods. He or she may recommend a vitamin or dietary supplement. If you do need to supplement your diet, look for a supplement that contains the vitamin or mineral you need without a lot of other unnecessary ingredients.

Read the label to make sure the dose is not too large. Avoid supplements with mega-doses. Your doctor or pharmacist can recommend brands that fit your needs. Sodium is another important mineral.

Whenever you add salt to your food, you're adding sodium. We all need some sodium, but too much over time can lead to high blood pressure , which can raise your risk of having a heart attack or stroke. How much sodium is okay? People 51 and older should reduce their sodium intake to 2, mg each day. That is about one teaspoon of salt and includes sodium added during manufacturing or cooking as well as at the table when eating. Preparing your own meals at home without using a lot of processed foods or salt will allow you to control how much sodium you get.

If you make this change slowly, you will get used to the difference in taste. Eating more fresh vegetables and fruit also helps — they are naturally low in sodium and provide more potassium. Get your sauce and dressing on the side and use only as much as you need for taste. Read about this topic in Spanish. Food and Drug Administration toll-free druginfo fda. Dietary Guidelines for Americans DietaryGuidelines usda.

NIA scientists and other experts review this content to ensure it is accurate and up to date. Vitamins and minerals are two of the main types of nutrients that your body needs to survive and stay healthy.

Find information on some of the essential vitamins recommended for older adults and how to get the recommended amount within your diet. If you are over age 70, you need at least 20 mcg IU , but not more than mcg 4, IU.

If you are age 51—70, you need at least 15 mcg IU each day, but not more than mcg 4, IU. You can get vitamin D from fatty fish, fish liver oils, fortified milk and milk products, and fortified cereals.

Vitamin B12 2. You can get this vitamin from meat, fish, poultry, milk, and fortified breakfast cereals. Some people over age 50 have trouble absorbing the vitamin B12 found naturally in foods. They may need to take vitamin B12 supplements and eat foods fortified with this vitamin. Calcium Men age need 1, mg each day.

Men age 71 need 1, mg each day. Calcium is a mineral that is important for strong bones and teeth, so there are special recommendations for older people who are at risk for bone loss.

You can get calcium from milk and other dairy, some forms of tofu, dark-green leafy vegetables, soybeans, canned sardines and salmon with bones, and calcium-fortified foods. Magnesium mg each day. This mineral, generally, is found in foods containing dietary fiber, such as green leafy vegetables, whole grains, legumes, and nuts and seeds.

Breakfast cereals and other fortified foods often have added magnesium. Magnesium is also present in tap, mineral, or bottled drinking water. Potassium Men need 3, mg each day. Most women age 51 and older need 2, mg each day Many different fruits, vegetables, meats, and dairy foods contain potassium. Foods high in potassium include dried apricots, lentils, and potatoes.

Adults get a lot of their potassium from milk, coffee, tea, and other nonalcoholic beverages. Sodium Men 51 and older should reduce their sodium intake to 2, mg each day. That is about 1 teaspoon of salt and includes sodium added during manufacturing or cooking as well as at the table when eating.

Women 51 and older should reduce their sodium intake to 2, mg each day. Vitamin B6 Most men 51 and older should aim for 1. Most women 51 and older should aim for 1. Vitamin B6 is found in a wide variety of foods. The richest sources of vitamin B6 include fish, beef liver, potatoes and other starchy vegetables, and fruit other than citrus.

Most women 51 and older should aim for mcg RAE each day. Vitamin A can be found in products such as eggs and milk. It can also be found in vegetables and fruits, like carrots and mangoes. Vitamin C Most men 51 and older should aim for 75 mg each day. Most women 51 and older should aim for 90 mg each day.

Fruits and vegetables are some of the best sources of vitamin C. Citrus fruits, tomatoes, and potatoes can be a large source of vitamin C. Vitamin E Most men age 51 and older should aim for 15 mg each day. Most women age 51 and older should aim for 15 mg each day. Vitamin E can be found in nuts like peanuts and almonds and can be found in vegetable oils, too. It can also be found in green vegetables, like broccoli and spinach. Vitamin B1 Thiamin Most men 51 and older should aim for 1. You can find vitamin B1 in meat — especially pork — and fish.

Vitamin B2 Riboflavin Most men 51 and older should aim for 1. You can find vitamin B2 in eggs and organ meat, such as liver and kidneys, and lean meat. You can also find it in green vegetables, like asparagus and broccoli.

Vitamin B3 Niacin Most men 51 and older should aim for 16 mg each day. Most women 51 and older should aim for 14 mg each day. Vitamin B3 can be found in some types of nuts, legumes, and grains. It can also be found in poultry, beef, and fish.

Vitamin K Most men 51 and older should aim for mg each day. Most women should aim for 90 mg each day. Vitamin K can be found in many foods including green leafy vegetables, like spinach and kale and in some fruits, such as blueberries and figs. It can also be found in cheese, eggs, and different meats. Folate Most men age 51 and older should aim for mcg DFE each day. Most women age 51 and older should aim for mcg DFE each day.

Folate can be found in vegetables and fruit, such as broccoli, brussel sprouts, spinach, and oranges. It can also be found in nuts, beans, and peas.

For More Information on Vitamins and Minerals. Related Articles. Men age need 1, mg each day. Many different fruits, vegetables, meats, and dairy foods contain potassium. Men 51 and older should reduce their sodium intake to 2, mg each day.

Listing of vitamins

A Harvard Health article. Vitamins and minerals are essential nutrients because they perform hundreds of roles in the body. There is a fine line between getting enough of these nutrients which is healthy and getting too much which can end up harming you. Eating a healthy diet remains the best way to get sufficient amounts of the vitamins and minerals you need. Every day, your body produces skin, muscle, and bone. It churns out rich red blood that carries nutrients and oxygen to remote outposts, and it sends nerve signals skipping along thousands of miles of brain and body pathways.

The tables below list the vitamins , what they do in the body their functions , and their sources in food. Water-soluble vitamins travel freely through the body, and excess amounts usually are excreted by the kidneys. The body needs water-soluble vitamins in frequent, small doses. These vitamins are not as likely as fat-soluble vitamins to reach toxic levels. But niacin, vitamin B6, folate, choline, and vitamin C have upper consumption limits.

We include products we think are useful for our readers. If you buy through links on this page, we may earn a small commission. Fat-soluble vitamins are vitamins A, D, E, and K. They are present in foods containing fats. The body absorbs these vitamins as it does dietary fats. They do not dissolve in water.


Nutrient. RDA or DRI. Functions in the Body/Benefits. Dietary Sources. FAT-​SOLUBLE VITAMINS. Vitamin A. Retinol, beta-carotene and various other carotenoids.


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The tables below list the vitamins , what they do in the body their functions , and their sources in food. Water-soluble vitamins travel freely through the body, and excess amounts usually are excreted by the kidneys. The body needs water-soluble vitamins in frequent, small doses.

The list of vitamins and minerals below can give you an understanding of how particular different types of vitamins and minerals work in your body, how much of each nutrient you need every day , and what types of food to eat to ensure that you are getting an adequate supply. The recommendations in this vitamins chart are based largely on guidelines from the Institute of Medicine. Recommended amounts of different types of vitamins may be expressed in milligrams mg , micrograms mcg , or international units IU , depending on the nutrient. Unless specified, values represent those for adults ages 19 and older.

Micronutrients are one of the major groups of nutrients your body needs. They include vitamins and minerals. Vitamins are necessary for energy production, immune function, blood clotting and other functions. Meanwhile, minerals play an important role in growth, bone health, fluid balance and several other processes. This article provides a detailed overview of micronutrients, their functions and implications of excess consumption or deficiency.

A vitamin is an organic molecule or a set of molecules closely related chemically, i.

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PDF | The aim of this chapter is to summarize key literature findings regarding the role of micronutrients, mainly vitamins and minerals in health.

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