Software Product And Project Management Pdf

software product and project management pdf

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Email: solutions altexsoft. Being an integral part of software engineering processes along with the business analysis and requirement specification, design, programming and testing, the project management has been a topic of considerable debate for years. In fact, the organizations using proven project management practices waste 28 less money and implement projects that are 2.

A project is well-defined task, which is a collection of several operations done in order to achieve a goal for example, software development and delivery. A Project can be characterized as:.

Project management

Many companies approach product development as if it were manufacturing, trying to control costs and improve quality by applying zero-defect, efficiency-focused techniques. While this tactic can boost the performance of factories, it generally backfires with product development. The process of designing products is profoundly different from the process of making them, and the failure of executives to appreciate the differences leads to several fallacies that actually hurt product-development efforts.

In this article, the authors, an HBS professor and a consultant, expose these misperceptions and others. They look at six dangerous myths:. Most product-development managers are always struggling to bring in projects on time and on budget. They never have enough resources to get the job done, and their bosses demand predictable schedules and deliverables. So the managers push their teams to be more parsimonious, to write more-detailed plans, and to minimize schedule variations and waste.

But that approach, which may work well in turning around underperforming factories, can actually hurt product-development efforts. Although many companies treat product development as if it were similar to manufacturing, the two are profoundly different.

In the world of manufacturing physical objects, tasks are repetitive, activities are reasonably predictable, and the items being created can be in only one place at a time. In product development many tasks are unique, project requirements constantly change, and the output—thanks, in part, to the widespread use of advanced computer-aided design and simulation and the incorporation of software in physical products—is information, which can reside in multiple places at the same time.

The failure to appreciate those critical differences has given rise to several fallacies that undermine the planning, execution, and evaluation of product development projects. Together, we have spent more than 50 years studying and advising companies on product-development efforts, and we have encountered these misconceptions—as well as others that arise for different reasons—in a wide range of industries, including semiconductors, autos, consumer electronics, medical devices, software, and financial services.

High utilization has serious negative side effects, which managers underestimate for three reasons:. Such processes behave in an orderly manner as the utilization of resources increases. Processes with high variability behave very differently. As utilization increases, delays lengthen dramatically. But few people understand this effect.

In our experience with hundreds of product-development teams, we have found that most were significantly overcommitted. The curve below is calculated using Queuing Theory, the mathematical study of waiting lines.

It shows that with variable processes, the amount of time projects spend on hold, waiting to be worked on, rises steeply as utilization of resources increases. It is true that some variability is the result of a lack of discipline, and that some product-development tasks like designing components for an airplane prototype or performing clinical trials include more-repetitive work.

High utilization of resources inevitably creates queues of projects. When partially completed work sits idle, waiting for capacity to become available, the duration of the overall project will grow. Queues also delay feedback, causing developers to follow unproductive paths longer.

Ironically, these problems are precisely the ones that managers think high utilization will allow their teams to avoid.

Managers need to weigh queue costs against the costs of underutilized capacity in order to strike the right balance. When inventory doubles in an engineering process, there are no physical signs. Consider the situation at a major pharmaceutical firm. Several years ago its newly appointed head of drug discovery faced a managerial dilemma. He wanted them to experiment more with new chemical compounds that could generate promising new drugs and, at the same time, to eliminate unpromising candidates as early as possible.

Experiments with living organisms, however, were the responsibility of animal testing, a department that was not under his control and was run as a cost center. It was evaluated by how efficiently it used testing resources, which naturally led to high utilization.

Consequently, the scientists in drug discovery had to wait three to four months for the results of tests that took a little more than a week to perform. The obvious solution to such problems is to provide a capacity buffer in processes that are highly variable. Some companies have long understood this. However, in our experience this kind of solution is quite hard to implement.

As we will discuss, few organizations can resist the temptation to use every last bit of available capacity. Managers reflexively start more work whenever they see idle time.

For the pharmaceutical company, this might involve taking steps to align the objectives of the animal-testing unit with those of the discovery unit. The company could, for example, reward animal testing for prompt responses measuring time from request to completion of test rather than resource utilization. If the pharmaceutical company did this in animal testing, it would obtain feedback on new chemical compounds far faster.

In settings where testing is conducted with computer modeling and simulation, increasing capacity is often relatively inexpensive, since it just involves buying additional computer equipment and software licenses.

The discipline of putting a hard limit on what goes into a product-development pipeline often results in sharper focus and clearer priorities.

One method is to use visual control boards. A control board should display all active work and show what state each part of the project is in. Teams can hold minute daily stand-up meetings around such boards to coordinate efforts and keep work moving. Control boards make invisible work visible by showing the precise stage that each work item is in. In designing the boards, most teams limit the number of tasks at each stage to prevent delays. This simple board contains features that might be found on a software project that involves a team composed of six to 10 people.

A second cause of queues in product development is batch size. You could choose to design and build all parts before you test any of them. That would have a profound effect on queue time, because the average queue in a process is directly proportional to batch size.

The reduction of batch sizes is a critical principle of lean manufacturing. Small batches allow manufacturers to slash work in process and accelerate feedback, which, in turn, improves cycle times, quality, and efficiency. Small batches have even greater utility in product development, but few developers realize the power of this method. One reason is the nature of their work flow.

Second, developers seem to have an inherent bias to use large batches—possibly because they incorrectly believe that large batches produce economies of scale. If you buy a month supply on a single trip, your transaction cost is low, but most of the eggs will spoil, increasing your holding cost. If you buy a one-day supply at a time, your spoilage will be low, but your transaction costs will be high. Intuitively, you try to strike a balance between the two.

Changes in batch size affect two primary costs: the transaction cost and the holding cost. As batch sizes become larger, average inventory levels rise, which raises holding costs. But at the same time, transaction costs decrease, because it takes fewer transactions to service demand.

The optimal batch size is the point where the total cost combined holding and transaction cost is lowest. When a company operates near this point, small deviations have little impact. So even rough estimates permit a company to capture large economic benefits. The companies that understand how this works have exploited IT advances to reduce batch sizes, often with astonishing results.

Some software companies that used to test large batches of code every 90 days are now testing much smaller batches several times a day. The cost savings were twice as high as the company had expected. Although those results were exceptional, we have found that reducing batch size improves most development projects significantly.

Similarly, computerized modeling and simulation tools have dramatically lowered the optimal batch size of experimentation and testing in companies that develop physical products. Yet many organizations place inordinate faith in their plans. They attribute any deviations to poor management and execution and, to minimize them, carefully track every step against intermediate targets and milestones. Such thinking is fine for highly repetitive activities in established manufacturing processes.

But it can lead to poor results in product innovation, where new insights are generated daily and conditions are constantly changing. A classic study of technical problem solving done by Thomas Allen of MIT highlights the fluid nature of development work.

He found that engineers who were developing an aerospace subsystem conceived of and evaluated a number of design alternatives before selecting one that they judged to be the best. Along the way their preferences changed frequently, as they tested and refined competing technical solutions. For all those reasons, sticking to the original plan—no matter how excellent its conception and how skillful its execution—can be a recipe for disaster.

Product development is a set of complex activities that require careful coordination and attention to the smallest detail. However, the plan should be treated as an initial hypothesis that is constantly revised as the evidence unfolds, economic assumptions change, and the opportunity is reassessed. As we discussed earlier, idle time is anathema to managers. They tend to exploit any downtime by starting a new project. Such thinking leads companies to start more projects than they can vigorously pursue, diluting resources.

This dilution is dangerous. If a company embarks on a project before it has the resources to move ahead, it will stumble slowly through the development process.

The slower a project progresses, the greater the likelihood it will have to be redirected. In other words, when the original schedule of a project doubled, the cost and schedule overruns increased by a factor of It simply states that, on average, cycle time is proportional to the size of the queue divided by the processing rate.

Thus, if 20 people are ahead of you in line at Starbucks and the barista is serving five people a minute, you will be served in four minutes. You can shorten the cycle time by raising the processing rate or by reducing the number of jobs under way.

In most settings the latter is the only practical choice. They match it to the rate at which work is actually completed; carefully manage the number of projects in process; make sure that once a project is launched, it is adequately staffed until it is completed; and resist the temptation to steal resources from an ongoing project to squeeze in new ones.

Product-development teams seem to believe that adding features creates value for customers and subtracting them destroys value. This attitude explains why products are so complicated: Remote controls seem impossible to use, computers take hours to set up, cars have so many switches and knobs that they resemble airplane cockpits, and even the humble toaster now comes with a manual and LCD displays.

Companies that challenge the belief that more is better create products that are elegant in their simplicity. Its high-end speakers automatically make the adjustments needed to reproduce a song with as much fidelity to the original as possible.

Software Project Management

Project management is the process of leading the work of a team to achieve goals and meet success criteria at a specified time. The primary challenge of project management is to achieve all of the project goals within the given constraints. The primary constraints are scope , time, budget. The objective of project management is to produce a complete project which complies with the client's objectives. In many cases the objective of project management is also to shape or reform the client's brief to feasibly address the client's objectives. Ill-defined or too tightly prescribed project management objectives are detrimental to decision making.

Actively scan device characteristics for identification. Use precise geolocation data. Select personalised content. Create a personalised content profile. Measure ad performance. Select basic ads.

This course is part of the Software Product Management Specialization. This course highlights the importance and role of software product management. It also provides an overview of the specialization, as well as its goals, structure, and expectations. The course explains the value of process, requirements, planning, and monitoring in producing better software. Are you ready to start? Our starting point will be the goal of software product management, and that is to build better software.

concepts. Highsmith, J. Agile project management: creating innovative products. (see:

Introduction to Software Product Management

Product management vs. But they are quite different disciplines requiring their own particular sets of skills and tools. But the responsibilities are very different. It is a role that is both external and internal, manages up and down, and spans technical, business, and operational domains.

Many companies approach product development as if it were manufacturing, trying to control costs and improve quality by applying zero-defect, efficiency-focused techniques. While this tactic can boost the performance of factories, it generally backfires with product development. The process of designing products is profoundly different from the process of making them, and the failure of executives to appreciate the differences leads to several fallacies that actually hurt product-development efforts.

Problems arise in every organization. These problems and their alternative solutions establish some elements of change around which the organization must adapt. Projects are generally established to carry out these changes and someone is always responsible for each project's successful completion. Every project is unique in terms of the problems that arise, the priorities and resources assigned it, the environment in which it operates, and the project manager's attitude and style used to guide and control project activities. Therefore, the organizational structure for the project must be designed to fit within that project's operating constraints.

Agile Project Management: Best Practices and Methodologies

 Это очень большие деньги. - Конечно. Договорились. Девушка покачала головой. - Как бы я хотела сказать. - Миллион песет? - предложил Беккер.  - Это все, что у меня .

 Кто это такие? - переминаясь с ноги на ногу, спросил Бринкерхофф. - Всевидящее око, - сказал Фонтейн, вглядываясь в лица людей, которых он отправил в Испанию. Это была вынужденная мера. Фонтейн почти во всем полагался на Стратмора и верил в его план, в том числе и в достойную сожаления, но неизбежную необходимость устранять Энсея Танкадо и в переделку Цифровой крепости, - все это было правильно. Но одно не давало Фонтейну покоя - то, что Стратмор решил прибегнуть к услугам Халохота.

После фиаско Попрыгунчика. Четыре года назад конгресс, стремясь создать новый стандарт шифрования, поручил лучшим математикам страны, иными словами - сотрудникам АНБ, написать новый супералгоритм. Конгресс собирался принять закон, объявляющий этот новый алгоритм национальным стандартом, что должно было решить проблему несовместимости, с которой сталкивались корпорации, использующие разные алгоритмы. Конечно, просить АН Б приложить руку к совершенствованию системы общего пользования - это все равно что предложить приговоренному к смертной казни самому сколотить себе гроб. ТРАНСТЕКСТ тогда еще не был создан, и принятие стандарта лишь облегчило бы процесс шифрования и значительно затруднило АНБ выполнение его и без того нелегкой задачи. Фонд электронных границ сразу увидел в этом конфликт интересов и всячески пытался доказать, что АНБ намеренно создаст несовершенный алгоритм - такой, какой ему будет нетрудно взломать.

With product focus, in addition to project focus, planning accuracy can be improved, time-to-market reduced, product quality enhanced, and economic success.

Six Myths of Product Development

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Я найду свободную комнату и покажу вам Испанию с такой стороны, что вам будет что вспомнить, - И она сладко причмокнула губами. Беккер изобразил улыбку. - Я должен идти. Он извинился перед немцем за вторжение, в ответ на что тот скромно улыбнулся. - Keine Ursache. Беккер вышел в коридор.

 - Он еще раз оглядел комнату. - Вас подбросить в аэропорт? - предложил лейтенант - Мой Мото Гуччи стоит у подъезда. - Спасибо, не стоит. Я возьму такси.  - Однажды в колледже Беккер прокатился на мотоцикле и чуть не разбился.

Работа заняла намного больше времени, чем он рассчитывал. Когда он поднес раскаленный конец паяльника к последнему контакту, раздался резкий звонок мобильного телефона. Джабба вздрогнул, и на руку ему упала шипящая капля жидкого олова. - Черт возьми! - Он отшвырнул паяльник и едва не подавился портативным фонариком.  - Дьявольщина.

Беккер рванулся к. Неужели все это происходит со мной? - подумал.  - Я же терпеть не могу мотоциклы.


Luca B.


PDF | Research Project Management Process, implies the allocation of important human and financial In this paper we propose a new software for project management, along with a new approach but at the Managing Product Delivery.