Handbook Of Industrial And Organizational Psychology 1976 Pdf

handbook of industrial and organizational psychology 1976 pdf

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Organizational psychology is the science of psychology applied to work and organizations. This field of inquiry spans more than a century and covers an increasingly diverse range of topics as the nature of work and organizations continue to evolve. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a concise overview of organizational psychology as a field of inquiry and the topics covered in this handbook, which endeavors to encapsulate key topics of research and application, summarize important research findings, and identify innovative directions for research and practice.

The Nature of Organizational Psychology

Industrial and organizational psychology I-O psychology which is also known as occupational psychology, organizational psychology, or work and organizational psychology; is an applied discipline within psychology.

Industrial, work and organizational psychology IWO is the broader global term for the field internationally. The discipline is the science of human behavior relating to work and applies psychological theories and principles to organizations and individuals in their places of work as well as the individual's work-life more generally. They contribute to an organization's success by improving the performance, motivation , job satisfaction , and occupational safety and health as well as the overall health and well-being of its employees.

An I-O psychologist conducts research on employee behaviors and attitudes, and how these can be improved through hiring practices, training programs, feedback, and management systems. In the United Kingdom, industrial and organizational psychologists are referred to as occupational psychologists. Occupational psychology in the UK is one of nine "protected titles" within the profession "practitioner psychologist" regulated by the Health and Care Professions Council.

Organizational psychology is one of nine areas of specialist endorsement for psychology practice in Australia. In Europe, someone with a specialist EuroPsy Certificate in Work and Organisational Psychology is a fully qualified psychologist and a specialist in the work psychology field. Instead of viewing performance differences as human "errors", Cattell was one of the first to recognize the importance of differences among individuals as a way of better understanding work behavior.

Scott, along with Walter Van Dyke Bingham , worked at the Carnegie Institute of Technology , developing methods for selecting and training sales personnel. The "industrial" side of I-O psychology originated in research on individual differences, assessment, and the prediction of work performance. Industrial psychology crystallized during World War I. In response to the need to rapidly assign new troops to duty.

Scott and Bingham volunteered to help with the testing and placement of more than a million army recruits. In , together with other prominent psychologists, they adapted a well-known intelligence test the Stanford—Binet , which was designed for testing one individual at a time, to make it suitable for group testing.

The new test was called the Army Alpha. After the war, the growing industrial base in the US was a source of momentum for what was then called industrial psychology. Elton Mayo found that rest periods improved morale and reduced turnover in a Philadelphia textile factory.

The results of these studies ushered in the human relations movement. World War II brought renewed interest in ability testing to accurately place recruits in new technologically advanced military jobs , the introduction of the assessment center, and concern with morale and fatigue in war industry workers. It was initially called the Industrial and Business Psychology Division.

In , the name was changed to the Industrial Psychology Division. In , it was renamed again, this time to the Division of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. In , the unit become more independent of APA, and its name was changed again, this time to the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology. The name change of the division from "industrial psychology" to "industrial and organizational psychology" reflected the shift in the work of industrial psychologists who had originally addressed work behavior from the individual perspective, examining performance and attitudes of individual workers.

Their work became broader. Group behavior in the workplace became a worthy subject of study. According to Bryan and Vinchur, "while organizational psychology increased in popularity through [the s and s], research and practice in the traditional areas of industrial psychology continued, primarily driven by employment legislation and case law".

For example, I-O psychology showed increased interest in behaviorally anchored rating scales. From the s to s, other changes in I-O psychology took place. Researchers increasingly adopted a multi-level approach, attempting to understand behavioral phenomena from both the level of the organization and the level of the individual worker. For example, an emphasis on organizational justice and the psychological contract took root, as well as the more traditional concerns of selection and training.

With the passage of the American with Disabilities Act in and parallel legislation elsewhere in the world, I-O psychology saw an increased emphasis on "fairness in personnel decisions. As described above, I-O psychologists are trained in the scientist—practitioner model.

I-O psychologists rely on a variety of methods to conduct organizational research. Study designs employed by I-O psychologists include surveys , experiments , quasi-experiments , and observational studies. I-O psychologists rely on diverse data sources including human judgments, historical databases, objective measures of work performance e.

I-O researchers employ quantitative statistical methods. Quantitative methods used in I-O psychology include correlation , multiple regression , and analysis of variance. More advanced statistical methods employed in I-O research include logistic regression , structural equation modeling , [19] and hierarchical linear modeling HLM; also known as multilevel modeling.

I-O psychologists have also employed qualitative methods , which largely involve focus groups , interviews , and case studies. I-O research on organizational culture research has employed ethnographic techniques and participant observation. Job analysis encompasses a number of different methods including, but not limited to, interviews, questionnaires, task analysis, and observation.

By contrast, a worker-oriented job analysis involves an examination of the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics KSAOs required to successfully perform the work. Information obtained from job analyses are used for many purposes, including the creation of job-relevant selection procedures, performance appraisals and the criteria they require, and the development of training programs.

I-O psychologists typically work with human resource specialists to design a recruitment processes and b personnel selection systems. Personnel recruitment processes include developing job announcements, placing ads, defining key qualifications for applicants, and screening out unqualified applicants. Personnel selection is the systematic process of hiring and promoting personnel.

Personnel selection systems employ evidence-based practices to determine the most qualified candidates. Personnel selection involves both the newly hired and individuals who can be promoted from within the organization. Common selection tools include ability tests e. I-O psychologists must evaluate evidence regarding the extent to which selection tools predict job performance.

Personnel selection procedures are usually validated, i. I-O psychologists must adhere to professional standards in personnel selection efforts. SIOP e. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission 's Uniform guidelines [34] are also influential in guiding personnel selection decisions.

A meta-analysis of selection methods found that general mental ability was the best overall predictor of job performance and attainment in training. Performance appraisal or performance evaluation is the process in which an individual's or a group's work behaviors and outcomes are assessed against managers' and others' expectations for the job.

Performance management is the process of providing performance feedback relative to expectations, and information relevant to improvement e. Performance management may also include documenting and tracking performance information for organizational evaluation purposes. An I-O psychologist would typically use information from the job analysis to determine a job's performance dimensions, and then construct a rating scale to describe each level of performance for the job.

Individual assessment involves the measurement of individual differences. I-O psychologists perform individual assessments in order to evaluate differences among candidates for employment as well as differences among employees.

With candidates for employment, individual assessment is often part of the personnel selection process. These assessments can include written tests, aptitude tests, physical tests, psycho-motor tests, personality tests , integrity and reliability tests, work samples, simulations , and assessment centres.

I-O psychologists are concerned with occupational health and well-being for well over a century. Developments early in the 20th century occurred in both the UK and the U. Arthur Kornhauser examined the impact on productivity of hiring mentally unstable workers. More recently, I-O researchers have found that staying vigorous during working hours is associated with better work-related behaviour and subjective well-being as well as more effective functioning in the family domain.

I-O psychologists are concerned with the related topics of workplace bullying, aggression, and violence. Ruminative thinking is associated with poor well-being. I-O psychologists may be asked to conduct a job evaluation for the purpose of determining compensation levels and ranges. I-O psychologists may also serve as expert witnesses in pay discrimination cases, when disparities in pay for similar work are alleged by employees.

Training involves the systematic teaching of skills, concepts, or attitudes that results in improved performance in another environment. Evidence indicates that training is often effective, and that it succeeds in terms of higher net sales and gross profitability per employee. Similar to performance management see above , an I-O psychologist would employ a job analysis in concert with the application of the principles of instructional design to create an effective training program.

Training programs often include formative evaluations to assess the effect of the training as the training proceeds. Formative evaluations can be used to locate problems in training procedures and help I-O psychologists make corrective adjustments while training is ongoing. The foundation for training programs is learning. Learning outcomes can be organized into three broad categories: cognitive, skill-based, and affective outcomes. Skill-based training aims to impart procedural knowledge e.

Affective training concerns teaching individuals to develop specific attitudes or beliefs that predispose trainees to behave a certain way e. A needs assessment , an analysis of corporate and individual goals, is often undertaken prior to the development of a training program.

An organizational analysis is an examination of organizational goals and resources as well as the organizational environment. The analysis identifies the training needs of different departments or subunits.

An organizational analysis also takes into account the climate of the organization and its subunits. For example, if a climate for safety is emphasized throughout the organization or in subunits of the organization e.

With organizations increasingly trying to identify "core competencies" that are required for all jobs, task analysis can also include an assessment of competencies. Employee needs can be assessed using a variety of methods that identify weaknesses that training can address. Work motivation reflects the energy an individual applies "to initiate work-related behavior, and to determine its form, direction, intensity, and duration" [58] Understanding what motivates an organization's employees is central to I-O psychology.

Motivation is generally thought of as a theoretical construct that fuels behavior. An incentive is an anticipated reward that is thought to incline a person to behave a certain way.

Studying its influence on behavior, it must be examined together with ability and environmental influences. Because of motivation's role in influencing workplace behavior and performance, many organizations structure the work environment to encourage productive behaviors and discourage unproductive behaviors. Motivation involves three psychological processes: arousal, direction, and intensity.

It is often fueled by a person's need or desire for something that is missing from his or her life, either totally or partially. Direction refers to the path employees take in accomplishing the goals they set for themselves. Intensity is the amount of energy employees put into goal-directed work performance.

The Technology of Organization Development

University of maryland. Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology , Organizational behavior and human performance 3 2 , , Academy of management perspectives 5 2 , , Human resource management review 13 2 , ,


An up-to-date handbook on conceptual and methodological issues relevant to the study of industrial and organizational behavior. Chapters contributed by.


Internationalizing the Curriculum in Organizational Psychology

Industrial and organizational psychology I-O psychology which is also known as occupational psychology, organizational psychology, or work and organizational psychology; is an applied discipline within psychology. Industrial, work and organizational psychology IWO is the broader global term for the field internationally. The discipline is the science of human behavior relating to work and applies psychological theories and principles to organizations and individuals in their places of work as well as the individual's work-life more generally. They contribute to an organization's success by improving the performance, motivation , job satisfaction , and occupational safety and health as well as the overall health and well-being of its employees.

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The Technology of Organization Development

Industrial and organizational psychology

The system can't perform the operation now. Try again later. Citations per year. Duplicate citations. The following articles are merged in Scholar.

Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Dunnette Published Sociology. An up-to-date handbook on conceptual and methodological issues relevant to the study of industrial and organizational behavior. Chapters contributed by leading experts from the academic and business communities cover substantive issues at both the individual and organizational level, in both theoretical and practical terms. View PDF.


Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Marvin D. Dunnette, editor. Chicago: Rand McNally, 1, pp. $ A REVIEW ESSAY.


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