File Name: evaluation and treatment of constipation in infants and children .zip
Constipation is one of the most common problems evaluated by pediatricians, pediatric gastroenterologist, and pediatric surgeons alike. A clear and concise management algorithm is needed to appropriately treat patients and avoid unnecessary outpatient and emergency department visits. Once organic causes of constipation have been ruled out, treatment should progress in a stepwise fashion until success, defined as daily bowel movements without encopresis or overflow pseudoincontinence.
It has been published without interruption since Jornal de Pediatria publishes original articles and review articles covering various areas in the field of pediatrics. By publishing relevant scientific contributions, Jornal de Pediatria aims at improving the standards of pediatrics and of the healthcare provided for children and adolescents in general, as well to foster debate about health. The Impact Factor measures the average number of citations received in a particular year by papers published in the journal during the two receding years. CiteScore measures average citations received per document published. Read more.
Evaluation and Management of Pediatric Constipation
More-extensive testing is usually reserved for only the most severe cases of constipation. If necessary, these tests may include:. Over-the-counter fiber supplements or stool softeners. If your child doesn't get a lot of fiber in his or her diet, adding an over-the-counter fiber supplement, such as Metamucil or Citrucel, might help. However, your child needs to drink at least 32 ounces about 1 liter of water daily for these products to work well. Check with your child's doctor to find out the right dose for your child's age and weight. Glycerin suppositories can be used to soften the stool in children who can't swallow pills.
In the absence of organic aetiology, childhood constipation is almost always functional and often due to painful bowel movements that prompt the child to withhold stool. It is important to initiate a clear management plan for the family, as what is an easily treatable condition can escalate into a vicious cycle of pain if not addressed early. The medical approach should consider organic disease, the use of appropriate toileting habits, and dietary modifications. Laxatives are often required to re-establish regular, painless defaecation. Articles in this series aim to provide information about diagnosis and management of presentations in infants, toddlers and pre-school children in general practice. Within the first three months of life, infants can pass anywhere from 5 to 40 motions per week, decreasing at age one year to 4—20 motions per week and at three years to 3—14 per week. Constipation under these criteria requires two or more of the following: 3.
prevention and treatment of fecal impaction, with oral laxatives or rectal therapies. Polyethylene infants with constipation and in any child with constipa- tion who has book: A Manual for Pediatric House Officers. 19th ed.
Constipation in Children
Constipation is a common problem in children. It is common in both rich and poor countries despite the belief that developing countries consume food rich in fiber. Normal bowel movement in breastfed babies may range from several times a day to once in every 10 days. Constipation can be both functional and pathological. Functional constipation has no underlying cause and is the most common type of constipation found in children.
Investigations are not routinely required. If constipation persists despite adequate behaviour modification and laxative therapy, consider investigating for less common conditions as listed above. First line treatment options oral laxatives.
It is defined as delay or difficulty in defecation. Normal frequency and consistency of stool varies with children's age, and diet; there is also considerable variation from child to child.
Clinical Practice Guidelines
- Сегодня здесь все идет кувырком. В чем. - Пусти меня, - сказала Сьюзан, стараясь говорить как можно спокойнее. Внезапно ее охватило ощущение опасности. - Ну, давай же, - настаивал Хейл. - Стратмор практически выгнал Чатрукьяна за то, что тот скрупулезно выполняет свои обязанности. Что случилось с ТРАНСТЕКСТОМ.
Хейл, сидя на плите и действуя вытянутыми ногами как тараном, сорвал решетчатую дверь с петель, ворвался в комнату и теперь приближался к ней большими прыжками. Сьюзан швырнула ему под ноги настольную лампу, но Хейл легко преодолел это препятствие. Он был уже совсем. Правой рукой, точно железной клешней, он обхватил ее за талию так сильно, что она вскрикнула от боли, а левой сдавил ей грудную клетку. Сьюзан едва дышала.
Наделенный феноменальной памятью и способностями к языкам, он знал шесть азиатских языков, а также прекрасно владел испанским, французским и итальянским.