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- Unit -1: Introduction to Data Structure and it's Characteristics
- Data Structure Introduction
- Introduction to Data Structures and Algorithms
- Unit -1: Introduction to Data Structure and it's Characteristics

Data Structure is a way of collecting and organising data in such a way that we can perform operations on these data in an effective way. Data Structures is about rendering data elements in terms of some relationship, for better organization and storage. For example, we have some data which has, player's name "Virat" and age Here "Virat" is of String data type and 26 is of integer data type.

## Unit -1: Introduction to Data Structure and it's Characteristics

Data Structure can be defined as the group of data elements which provides an efficient way of storing and organising data in the computer so that it can be used efficiently. Data Structures are widely used in almost every aspect of Computer Science i. Data Structures are the main part of many computer science algorithms as they enable the programmers to handle the data in an efficient way.

Data structures are the building blocks of any program or the software. Choosing the appropriate data structure for a program is the most difficult task for a programmer. Following terminology is used as far as data structures are concerned. Each attribute represents the particular property of that entity.

As applications are getting complexed and amount of data is increasing day by day, there may arrise the following problems:. Data is organized to form a data structure in such a way that all items are not required to be searched and required data can be searched instantly.

For example: suppose, we have some data and we need to perform the search for a perticular record. In that case, if we organize our data in an array, we will have to search sequentially element by element. There are better data structures which can make the search process efficient like ordered array, binary search tree or hash tables.

Implementation of data structures can be compiled into libraries which can be used by different clients. The client program uses the data structure through interface only, without getting into the implementation details. In linear data structures, the elements are stored in non-hierarchical way where each element has the successors and predecessors except the first and last element. The data type of the element may be any valid data type like char, int, float or double.

The elements of array share the same variable name but each one carries a different index number known as subscript. The array can be one dimensional, two dimensional or multidimensional. It can be seen as the collection of nodes stored at non-contiguous memory locations. Each node of the list contains a pointer to its adjacent node. A stack is an abstract data type ADT , can be implemented in most of the programming languages.

It is named as stack because it behaves like a real-world stack, for example: — piles of plates or deck of cards etc. It is an abstract data structure, similar to stack. The data elements are not arranged in sequential structure. Each node contains pointers to point adjacent nodes. Tree data structure is based on the parent-child relationship among the nodes.

Each node in the tree can have more than one children except the leaf nodes whereas each node can have atmost one parent except the root node. Trees can be classfied into many categories which will be discussed later in this tutorial. A graph is different from tree in the sense that a graph can have cycle while the tree can not have the one.

Traversing the data structure means visiting each element of the data structure in order to perform some specific operation like searching or sorting. We can delete an element from the data structure at any random location. There are two algorithms to perform searching, Linear Search and Binary Search. We will discuss each one of them later in this tutorial. There are many algorithms that can be used to perform sorting, for example, insertion sort, selection sort, bubble sort, etc.

In computer programming, the most of the cases requires to store the large number of data of similar type. To store such amount of data, we need to define a large number of variables. It would be very difficult to remember names of all the variables while writing the programs. Instead of naming all the variables with a different name, it is better to define an array and store all the elements into it.

In the following example, we have marks of a student in six different subjects. The problem intends to calculate the average of all the marks of the student. In order to illustrate the importance of array, we have created two programs, one is without using array and other involves the use of array to store marks. As we have mentioned, all the data elements of an array are stored at contiguous locations in the main memory. The name of the array represents the base address or the address of first element in the main memory.

Each element of the array is represented by a proper indexing. In the following image, we have shown the memory allocation of an array arr of size 5. The array follows 0-based indexing approach. The base address of the array is th byte. This will be the address of arr[0]. Here, the size of int is 4 bytes therefore each element will take 4 bytes in the memory.

The 2D array is organized as matrices which can be represented as the collection of rows and columns. However, 2D arrays are created to implement a relational database look alike data structure. It provides ease of holding bulk of data at once which can be passed to any number of functions wherever required. The syntax of declaring two dimensional array is very much similar to that of a one dimensional array, given as follows.

Above image shows the two dimensional array, the elements are organized in the form of rows and columns. First element of the first row is represented by a[0][0] where the number shown in the first index is the number of that row while the number shown in the second index is the number of the column.

Due to the fact that the elements of 2D arrays can be random accessed. Similar to one dimensional arrays, we can access the individual cells in a 2D array by using the indices of the cells. There are two indices attached to a particular cell, one is its row number while the other is its column number.

However, we can store the value stored in any particular cell of a 2D array to some variable x by using the following syntax. However this will not work with 2D arrays. We will have to define at least the second dimension of the array. Sparse matrices are used by scientists and engineers when solving partial differential equations. Here is an example of a 4 x 4 matrix containing 12 zero values and 4 non-zero values, giving it a sparsity of Representing a sparse matrix by a 2D array leads to wastage of lots of memory as zeroes in the matrix are of no use in most of the cases.

So, instead of storing zeroes with non-zero elements, we only store non-zero elements. A lower triangular matrix is a square matrix in which all entries above the main diagonal are zero only nonzero entries are found below the main diagonal — in the lower triangle.

See the picture below. Skip to content Introduction Data Structure can be defined as the group of data elements which provides an efficient way of storing and organising data in the computer so that it can be used efficiently. The individual elements of the array age are: age[0], age[1], age[2], age[3],……… age[98], age[99]. Arrays are the derived data type in C programming language which can store the primitive type of data such as int, char, double, float, etc. Array is the simplest data structure where each data element can be randomly accessed by using its index number.

Properties of the Array Each element is of same data type and carries a same size i. Elements of the array are stored at contiguous memory locations where the first element is stored at the smallest memory location. Elements of the array can be randomly accessed since we can calculate the address of each element of the array with the given base address and the size of data element. Following example illustrates, how array can be useful in writing code for a particular problem.

Traversing an array is a very simple process, we just need to increment the base address of the array in order to visit each element one by one. Any element in the array can be directly accessed by using the index. Memory Allocation of the array As we have mentioned, all the data elements of an array are stored at contiguous locations in the main memory.

The indexing of the array can be defined in three ways. Accessing Elements of an array To access any random element of an array we need the following information: Base Address of the array.

Size of an element in bytes. Which type of indexing, array follows. How to declare 2D Array The syntax of declaring two dimensional array is very much similar to that of a one dimensional array, given as follows. How do we access data in a 2D array Due to the fact that the elements of 2D arrays can be random accessed. The syntax to declare and initialize the 2D array is given as follows.

Sparse matrix example Here is an example of a 4 x 4 matrix containing 12 zero values and 4 non-zero values, giving it a sparsity of 3: [[5, 0, 0, 0], [0, 11, 0, 0], [0, 0, 25, 0], [0, 0, 0, 7]] Representing a sparse matrix by a 2D array leads to wastage of lots of memory as zeroes in the matrix are of no use in most of the cases. Share this: Tweet. Like this: Like Loading Create your website with WordPress. By continuing to use this website, you agree to their use.

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## Data Structure Introduction

Data Structure can be defined as the group of data elements which provides an efficient way of storing and organising data in the computer so that it can be used efficiently. Data Structures are widely used in almost every aspect of Computer Science i. Data Structures are the main part of many computer science algorithms as they enable the programmers to handle the data in an efficient way. It plays a vitle role in enhancing the performance of a software or a program as the main function of the software is to store and retrieve the user's data as fast as possible. Data structures are the building blocks of any program or the software. Choosing the appropriate data structure for a program is the most difficult task for a programmer.

If you wish, you can read through a seven-page course description. A page topic summary is also available: Algorithms and data structures—topic summary. This is a collection of PowerPoint pptx slides "pptx" presenting a course in algorithms and data structures. Associated with many of the topics are a collection of notes "pdf". Some presentations may be associated with videos "V" and homework questions "Q" , possibly with answers "A".

Array, Stacks, linked list, queue. Eg. tree, graph. Implementation is easy. Implementation is difficult. Operation on Data Structures.

## Introduction to Data Structures and Algorithms

In the modern world, Data and its information is an essential part, and various implementations are being made to store in different ways. Data are just a collection of facts and figures, or you can say data are values or a set of values that are in a particular format. A data item refers to a single set of values. Data items are then further categorized into sub-items, which are the group of items that are not being called a plain elementary form of items. Let us take an example where the name of the student may be divided into three sub-items, namely: first name, middle name, and last name.

Data Structure can be defined as the group of data elements which provides an efficient way of storing and organising data in the computer so that it can be used efficiently. Data Structures are widely used in almost every aspect of Computer Science i. Data Structures are the main part of many computer science algorithms as they enable the programmers to handle the data in an efficient way. Data structures are the building blocks of any program or the software.

*In this post we will be looking briefly at, and at a high-level, the various data types and data structures used in designing software systems, and from which specific types of algorithms can subsequently be built upon and optimized for. There are many data structures, and even the ones that are covered here have many nuances that make it impossible to cover every possible detail. But my hope is that this will give you an interest to research them further.*

### Unit -1: Introduction to Data Structure and it's Characteristics

In computer science , a data structure is a data organization, management, and storage format that enables efficient access and modification. Data structures serve as the basis for abstract data types ADT. The ADT defines the logical form of the data type. The data structure implements the physical form of the data type. Different types of data structures are suited to different kinds of applications, and some are highly specialized to specific tasks. For example, relational databases commonly use B-tree indexes for data retrieval, [6] while compiler implementations usually use hash tables to look up identifiers. Data structures provide a means to manage large amounts of data efficiently for uses such as large databases and internet indexing services.

All the algorithms in the book are provided in pseudocode, so that students can implement the algorithms in a programming language of their choice. The book addresses basic as well as advanced algorithms in data structures, with introductory but adequate material about parallel computing models also provided At the end of each chapter, there are sample exercises with solutions that help students to test their understanding of the book. There are also unsolved exercises that can be of use to instructors for course assignments Each chapter also includes notes at the end, providing a good summary of the topics covered, which is very useful for students taking the course.

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Algorithms manipulate the data in these structures in various ways, such as searching for a particular data item and sorting the data. Overview of Data Structures.