Sanitary And Phytosanitary Measures Imposed On Which West African Agricultural Fish Exports Pdf

sanitary and phytosanitary measures imposed on which west african agricultural fish exports pdf

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New barriers hinder African trade

Key fisheries market access issues for ACP countries 2. Latest developments 2. For and earlier years developments, please see the version of the Executive brief:. The contribution of aquaculture to fisheries production and to the international trade in fishery products has grown rapidly in recent years.

In a context of declining catches in wild fisheries, increasing attention, including in ACP countries, is being given to the potential of aquaculture to meet the gap in fish supplies for both local consumption and export markets. These non-reciprocal trade-aid arrangements are being replaced by fully reciprocal, WTO-compatible economic partnership agreements EPAs. Following the approval of the Council Regulation on July 22nd , a new scheme of generalised tariff preferences will apply for the period from January 1st to December 31st In response to the desire expressed by users of GSP to ensure continued stability, predictability and transparency, the scheme remains broadly unchanged, and comprises three different arrangements:.

In terms of market access, the EBA regime and the EPAs are both providing duty-free, quota-free access for fisheries products and therefore are more advantageous than the GSP. These are gradually but inexorably being eroded due to two main factors:. Restrictions imposed by rules of origin have for long been a source of contention in EU-ACP fisheries relations, in particular with respect to the valuable tuna fishery.

By thus restricting their possible sources of raw material, this limits the development of ACP processing activities. Currently, the rules of origin applicable under the protocols deriving from a new market-access regulation include a series of changes from the situation under the Cotonou Agreement.

While ACP fish exporters enjoy duty-free, quota-free access to the EU market for their fisheries products, they however are facing increasing quality-related standards. Issues of food safety SPS standards , product identification species, origin, etc , traceability from catch to consumption , and private eco-labels for sustainability of fish stocks and organic aquaculture are becoming increasingly important issues facing ACP fish exporters in accessing the EU market. Sanitary and phytosanitary SPS standards in fish-processing plants and throughout the chain of custody from vessel through to consumer must be complied with.

It is also important to note the growing power of international retailers who have been able, sometimes more efficiently than governments, to impose increasingly stringent safety and quality standards for fish imports, but also requirements related to eco-labels on producers.

Whilst some of these, like the SPS standards may be important measures to protect European consumers, they also act as non-tariff barriers NTBs to trade, providing considerable constraints on market access for ACP fish producers and exporters, particularly the small- and medium-scale enterprises. However, FAO figures for show that some weakening in demand was registered in early as turmoil in the financial sector started to affect consumer confidence in major markets.

Many analysts feel that the economic crisis in Europe and elsewhere will endure. ACP fish-exporting countries therefore need to integrate this into their marketing strategies, to assess what kinds of products are likely to bring more added value to their fish, and also to ensure that the main barriers to trade — health-and-hygiene regulations, traceability - are properly addressed. Stagnation and decline in fish catches, and concern over the status of stocks has focused attention on the potential of aquaculture to meet the growing needs of international trade and domestic food security.

In the FAO published technical guidelines on aquaculture development to promote good practice in aquaculture as part of its programme of implementing the code of conduct for responsible fishing. The distribution of profit along the value chain is becoming a crucial issue for ensuring that ACP fisheries sectors benefit from international fish trade. Inputs for ACP fish producers are becoming more expensive, fuel and freight costs in particular. Recently several ACP countries have emphasised that developing the processing side can help to realise greater benefits from fish resources.

However this is true only if all conditions are met to produce high-quality products, complying with, in particular, SPS regulations and if mechanisms are in place to ensure sustainable levels of resource exploitation and socio-economic benefits number and quality of jobs in particular.

A study shows that, while the nominal value and the overall volume of developing-country fish exports have increased in recent years, their relative value has declined: in a tonne of developing-country fish exports was worth This highlights the fact that ACP and other developing countries have the opportunity to significantly increase their export earnings from fish and fishery products through adding value and raising quality.

But there is also a need for caution. The rapid growth in international trade to meet market demands is putting pressure on fishery resources. This can cause over-fishing where fishery management is weak, and where the use of fish-catching technologies that damage the environment is permitted. There are also concerns that international trade in fishery products may have negative consequences for local food security. A OECD analysis shows that these concerns are not substantiated, but also reveals that no demonstrable relationship exists between fish trade and economic growth or poverty alleviation.

The following table shows the top ten ACP fish exporters to the EU by value , the value and quantities of fish exported, the type of products exported, and the average value per tonne for Although other factors, such as the fish species concerned or the level of integration between EU and ACP operators, may play a role, this table seems to indicate that export earnings may be increased if certain products, like high-quality fresh fish, are given priority. Contrary to the common belief that processing always adds value to fish, this table shows that for some processing, like the canning of tuna, the value of fishery products may be reduced.

In a context where many ACP fish stocks are either fully exploited or over-exploited which means that it will be difficult to increase benefits by increasing production , the way in which resources are exploited and processed has a bearing on the extent to which ACP countries can maximise the benefits from them.

Broadly, investment is needed to:. IEPAs and EPAs include provisions on investment that could help meet these objectives, whilst improving ACP competitiveness, which is crucial in countering the consequences of preference erosion. ACP countries should use this opportunity to secure EU investment and development support to improve their fish-landing, transport, and processing infrastructures, and improve the capacity of their fish-processing-and-export sector to comply with international traceability and sanitary standards.

At the same time there is a need for caution: improving competitiveness through the promotion of EU investments should not be at the expense of local enterprise, labour standards, quality of life, and the local environment. Using this rationale, several ACP countries have secured onshore-processing facilities in their countries, often by promising valuable fishing licenses in exchange. However, there have been some concerns expressed that onshore investments have been secured without fully assessing the net benefits of the projects relative to the stresses that they are likely to place on tuna resources and local communities and environments.

There is concern that governments are granting fishing licenses based on promised facilities that might not materialise to the extent promised. In the case of tuna processing in the Pacific, unexpected conflicts between coastal communities and the processing facilities have arisen disputes over working conditions, land rights and pollution.

ACP countries need to develop a strategy for fully benefiting from such projects. This should include:. As investment is also a key component of the fisheries partnership agreements see the executive brief on FPAs , a coherent approach should be developed by the ACP and the EU to ensure that there is synergy between investments promoted through FPAs and EPAs, and that they are in line with sustainable fisheries development in ACP countries.

It includes a catch-certification scheme for certifying the legal origin of the product. This scheme, which is likely to be based on the model used for ensuring compliance with SPS standards, raises several issues.

The system proposed will not work if it is not supported by or based on at-sea observations. Where certification of catches is not supported by efficient and appropriate monitoring, control and surveillance MCS systems in countries where catches are made, there is a high risk that such certificates will be tampered with, negating any impact on the fight against IUU fishing.

On the other hand, the catch-certification scheme, by imposing an additional burden on ACP authorities, producers and exporters, may become an obstacle to legal ACP fish imports.

Issues arising from the implementation of the IUU catch-certification scheme have been explored in a series of country case studies including Namibia, Senegal and Mauritania published in July Based on these, the EC has already expressed its wish to introduce some degree of flexibility in certification requirements for artisanal fishing vessels, where the catch certificate would lie in the hands of the exporter, who will be required to provide information on supplies from individual vessels to the validating authorities.

In the absence of an internationally agreed definition of small-scale fisheries, the implementing rules would be based upon the main cumulative characteristics: maximum length or no superstructure, landing in the flag state, short fishing trip, export consignments built up from supplies from several vessels, etc.

The MAR has been introduced as a transition measure and will be replaced by the origin protocols annexed to the EPA agreements as soon as they provisionally start to apply. The restrictions imposed by the rules of origin have for long been a source of contention in EU-ACP fisheries relations, in particular with respect to the valuable tuna fishery.

A EC-commissioned study states that the RoO provide the EU tuna fleets with a captive market able and willing to pay the premium required by the EU fleets to operate viably. That the higher exploitation costs of EU fleets are passed on to ACP tuna buyers raises questions about their capacity to compete in such a highly competitive global market as that for canned tuna.

According to some observers, the preferential margin offered to the ACP countries for originating canned tuna could therefore be considered as a form of upstream subsidy to EU vessels via fishery-access agreements rather than as a trade concession to ACP countries. Currently, the rules of origin applicable under the protocols deriving from the MAR include a series of changes from the situation under the Cotonou Agreement:.

This global sourcing can be applied only under certain conditions, such as the notification by the Pacific country providing concrete information about the species concerned, products to be manufactured and quantities involved under the relaxed rule. For Pacific ACP states, this relaxation of the rules of origin may represent the only way for canneries to remain economically viable. It may already be showing its effects, in terms of job generation and poverty reduction.

Although the EU insisted on the fact that this concession was due to the specificities geographical, etc of the PACP, it shows how relaxing rules of origin could benefit other ACP groups, provided that other EU conditions hygiene standards, etc can be met.

Guidance note no. Council Regulation applying a scheme of generalised tariff preferences for the period from 1 January to 31 December and amending Regulations EC No. Regulation EEC No. Regulation EC No. Ruckes, E. Executive Brief Update Market access.

Fisheries market access; tariff and non-tariff aspects: Executive brief. From: Until:. Simple search Cross search. Login with your MyAgritrade account:. Choose ID. ACP fish exports to the EU27 ave. Total ACP fish exports ave. Main fish products exported by order of importance. Forgot your password? No account yet? Create one!

Strengthening the U.S.-Kenya Trade Relationship to Grow U.S. Agricultural Exports to East Africa

Agricultural Exports to East Africa. Printer-friendly PDF. Kenya is an emerging middle-income country and has one of the best performing economies in sub-Saharan Africa. It serves as the commercial hub for East Africa, with coastal ports that allow for imports to be received and transported to landlocked neighbors. Kenya relies heavily on imported food and farm products, much of which the United States produces competitively.

The European Union Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures and Africa s Exports

Key fisheries market access issues for ACP countries 2. Latest developments 2. For and earlier years developments, please see the version of the Executive brief:. The contribution of aquaculture to fisheries production and to the international trade in fishery products has grown rapidly in recent years.

Fisheries market access; tariff and non-tariff aspects: Executive brief

Just as developing countries are beginning to overcome some major hurdles in their quest to expand trade with industrial countries, another is rearing its head. As a result of agreements negotiated at the World Trade Organization WTO , traditional trade protection measures such as tariffs and quotas are falling away. But to some extent they are being replaced by domestic technical regulations that permit countries to bar products from entering their markets if the products do not meet certain standards.

October 2009

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Он стоит десять раз по двадцать миллионов. - Увы, - сказал Нуматака, которому уже наскучило играть, - мы оба знаем, что Танкадо этого так не оставит. Подумайте о юридических последствиях. Звонивший выдержал зловещую паузу. - А что, если мистер Танкадо перестанет быть фактором, который следует принимать во внимание. Нуматака чуть не расхохотался, но в голосе звонившего слышалась подозрительная решимость.

Strengthening the U.S.-Kenya Trade Relationship to Grow U.S. Agricultural Exports to East Africa

 В него попал зараженный файл, сэр. Я абсолютно в этом уверен.

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Spices Importers In Germany

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