File Name: discourse and language education .zip
- Definition and Examples of Discourse
- Language, Education and Discourse
- Linguistic Society of America
- Critical discourse analysis
Definition and Examples of Discourse
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Walsh Published Political Science. Section A: Problems and practices. Classroom Discourse and Teaching.
The term classroom discourse refers to the language that teachers and students use to communicate with each other in the classroom. Talking, or conversation, is the medium through which most teaching takes place, so the study of classroom discourse is the study of the process of face-to-face classroom teaching. The earliest systematic study of classroom discourse was reported in and used stenographers to make a continuous record of teacher and student talk in high school classrooms. The first use of audiotape recorders in classrooms was reported in the s, and during the s there was a rapid growth in the number of studies based on analysis of transcripts of classroom discourse. In , Barak Rosenshine and Norma Furst described seventy-six different published systems for analysing classroom discourse. It soon became clear from these early studies that the verbal interaction between teachers and students had an underlying structure that was much the same in all classrooms, and at all grade levels, in English-speaking countries. Essentially, a teacher asks a question, one or two students answer, the teacher comments on the students' answers sometimes summarizing what has been said , and then asks a further question.
Language, Education and Discourse
In linguistics , discourse refers to a unit of language longer than a single sentence. The word discourse is derived from the latin prefix dis- meaning "away" and the root word currere meaning "to run". Discourse, therefore, translates to "run away" and refers to the way that conversations flow. To study discourse is to analyze the use of spoken or written language in a social context. Discourse studies look at the form and function of language in conversation beyond its small grammatical pieces such as phonemes and morphemes.
Critical discourse analysis CDA is an interdisciplinary approach to the study of discourse that views language as a form of social practice. Scholars working in the tradition of CDA generally argue that non-linguistic social practice and linguistic practice constitute one another and focus on investigating how societal power relations are established and reinforced through language use. Critical discourse analysis emerged from 'critical linguistics' developed at the University of East Anglia by Roger Fowler and fellow scholars in the s, and the terms are now often interchangeable. Ruth Wodak has also made a major contribution to this field of study. Language connects with the social through being the primary domain of ideology , and through being both a site of, and a stake in, struggles for power. CDA is an application of discourse analysis , it is generally agreed that methods from discourse studies, the humanities and social sciences may be used in CDA research. This is on the condition that it is able to adequately and relevantly produce insights into the way discourse reproduces or resists social and political inequality, power abuse or domination.
Linguistic Society of America
Discourse analysis is sometimes defined as the analysis of language 'beyond the sentence'. This contrasts with types of analysis more typical of modern linguistics, which are chiefly concerned with the study of grammar: the study of smaller bits of language, such as sounds phonetics and phonology , parts of words morphology , meaning semantics , and the order of words in sentences syntax. Discourse analysts study larger chunks of language as they flow together. Some discourse analysts consider the larger discourse context in order to understand how it affects the meaning of the sentence.
Exploring Classroom Discourse: Language in Action looks at the relationships among language, interaction, and learning. Steve Walsh, the author, successfully demonstrates how to study classroom discourse and how to use that knowledge to improve classroom practice. The text is, therefore, targeted at in-service and pre-service teachers, but I certainly see a wider audience using the book, such as teacher educators, undergraduates and postgraduates, SLA researchers, as well as non-linguists.
Critical discourse analysis
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- И быстро пробежала глазами информацию. Здесь имелась масса всяческих сведений. - И откуда мы знаем, что именно ищем.