Respiratory System Notes Anatomy And Physiology Pdf

respiratory system notes anatomy and physiology pdf

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The major organs of the respiratory system function primarily to provide oxygen to body tissues for cellular respiration, remove the waste product carbon dioxide, and help to maintain acid-base balance. Portions of the respiratory system are also used for non-vital functions, such as sensing odors, speech production, and for straining, such as during childbirth or coughing Figure Functionally, the respiratory system can be divided into a conducting zone and a respiratory zone.

The conducting zone of the respiratory system includes the organs and structures not directly involved in gas exchange. The gas exchange occurs in the respiratory zone. The major functions of the conducting zone are to provide a route for incoming and outgoing air, remove debris and pathogens from the incoming air, and warm and humidify the incoming air. Several structures within the conducting zone perform other functions as well.

The epithelium of the nasal passages, for example, is essential to sensing odors, and the bronchial epithelium that lines the lungs can metabolize some airborne carcinogens. The major entrance and exit for the respiratory system is through the nose. When discussing the nose, it is helpful to divide it into two major sections: the external nose, and the nasal cavity or internal nose. The external nose consists of the surface and skeletal structures that result in the outward appearance of the nose and contribute to its numerous functions Figure The root is the region of the nose located between the eyebrows.

The bridge is the part of the nose that connects the root to the rest of the nose. The dorsum nasi is the length of the nose. The apex is the tip of the nose. The philtrum is the concave surface that connects the apex of the nose to the upper lip.

Underneath the thin skin of the nose are its skeletal features see Figure While the root and bridge of the nose consist of bone, the protruding portion of the nose is composed of cartilage. As a result, when looking at a skull, the nose is missing. The nasal bone is one of a pair of bones that lies under the root and bridge of the nose. The nasal bone articulates superiorly with the frontal bone and laterally with the maxillary bones.

Septal cartilage is flexible hyaline cartilage connected to the nasal bone, forming the dorsum nasi. The alar cartilage consists of the apex of the nose; it surrounds the naris. The nares open into the nasal cavity, which is separated into left and right sections by the nasal septum Figure The nasal septum is formed anteriorly by a portion of the septal cartilage the flexible portion you can touch with your fingers and posteriorly by the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone a cranial bone located just posterior to the nasal bones and the thin vomer bones whose name refers to its plough shape.

Each lateral wall of the nasal cavity has three bony projections, called the superior, middle, and inferior nasal conchae. The inferior conchae are separate bones, whereas the superior and middle conchae are portions of the ethmoid bone. Conchae serve to increase the surface area of the nasal cavity and to disrupt the flow of air as it enters the nose, causing air to bounce along the epithelium, where it is cleaned and warmed. The conchae and meatuses also conserve water and prevent dehydration of the nasal epithelium by trapping water during exhalation.

The floor of the nasal cavity is composed of the palate. The hard palate at the anterior region of the nasal cavity is composed of bone. The soft palate at the posterior portion of the nasal cavity consists of muscle tissue.

Air exits the nasal cavities via the internal nares and moves into the pharynx. Several bones that help form the walls of the nasal cavity have air-containing spaces called the paranasal sinuses, which serve to warm and humidify incoming air. Sinuses are lined with a mucosa. Each paranasal sinus is named for its associated bone: frontal sinus, maxillary sinus, sphenoidal sinus, and ethmoidal sinus. The sinuses produce mucus and lighten the weight of the skull. The nares and anterior portion of the nasal cavities are lined with mucous membranes, containing sebaceous glands and hair follicles that serve to prevent the passage of large debris, such as dirt, through the nasal cavity.

An olfactory epithelium used to detect odors is found deeper in the nasal cavity. The conchae, meatuses, and paranasal sinuses are lined by respiratory epithelium composed of pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium Figure The epithelium contains goblet cells, one of the specialized, columnar epithelial cells that produce mucus to trap debris. The cilia of the respiratory epithelium help remove the mucus and debris from the nasal cavity with a constant beating motion, sweeping materials towards the throat to be swallowed.

Interestingly, cold air slows the movement of the cilia, resulting in accumulation of mucus that may in turn lead to a runny nose during cold weather. This moist epithelium functions to warm and humidify incoming air. Capillaries located just beneath the nasal epithelium warm the air by convection. Serous and mucus-producing cells also secrete the lysozyme enzyme and proteins called defensins, which have antibacterial properties.

Immune cells that patrol the connective tissue deep to the respiratory epithelium provide additional protection. View the University of Michigan WebScope to explore the tissue sample in greater detail.

The pharynx is a tube formed by skeletal muscle and lined by mucous membrane that is continuous with that of the nasal cavities see Figure The pharynx is divided into three major regions: the nasopharynx, the oropharynx, and the laryngopharynx Figure The nasopharynx is flanked by the conchae of the nasal cavity, and it serves only as an airway.

At the top of the nasopharynx are the pharyngeal tonsils. A pharyngeal tonsil , also called an adenoid, is an aggregate of lymphoid reticular tissue similar to a lymph node that lies at the superior portion of the nasopharynx. The function of the pharyngeal tonsil is not well understood, but it contains a rich supply of lymphocytes and is covered with ciliated epithelium that traps and destroys invading pathogens that enter during inhalation.

The pharyngeal tonsils are large in children, but interestingly, tend to regress with age and may even disappear. The uvula is a small bulbous, teardrop-shaped structure located at the apex of the soft palate. Both the uvula and soft palate move like a pendulum during swallowing, swinging upward to close off the nasopharynx to prevent ingested materials from entering the nasal cavity.

In addition, auditory Eustachian tubes that connect to each middle ear cavity open into the nasopharynx. This connection is why colds often lead to ear infections. The oropharynx is a passageway for both air and food. The oropharynx is bordered superiorly by the nasopharynx and anteriorly by the oral cavity.

The fauces is the opening at the connection between the oral cavity and the oropharynx. As the nasopharynx becomes the oropharynx, the epithelium changes from pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium to stratified squamous epithelium. The oropharynx contains two distinct sets of tonsils, the palatine and lingual tonsils.

A palatine tonsil is one of a pair of structures located laterally in the oropharynx in the area of the fauces. The lingual tonsil is located at the base of the tongue. Similar to the pharyngeal tonsil, the palatine and lingual tonsils are composed of lymphoid tissue, and trap and destroy pathogens entering the body through the oral or nasal cavities. The laryngopharynx is inferior to the oropharynx and posterior to the larynx. It continues the route for ingested material and air until its inferior end, where the digestive and respiratory systems diverge.

The stratified squamous epithelium of the oropharynx is continuous with the laryngopharynx. Anteriorly, the laryngopharynx opens into the larynx, whereas posteriorly, it enters the esophagus. The larynx is a cartilaginous structure inferior to the laryngopharynx that connects the pharynx to the trachea and helps regulate the volume of air that enters and leaves the lungs Figure The structure of the larynx is formed by several pieces of cartilage.

Three large cartilage pieces—the thyroid cartilage anterior , epiglottis superior , and cricoid cartilage inferior —form the major structure of the larynx. The thyroid cartilage is the largest piece of cartilage that makes up the larynx. The thick cricoid cartilage forms a ring, with a wide posterior region and a thinner anterior region.

Three smaller, paired cartilages—the arytenoids, corniculates, and cuneiforms—attach to the epiglottis and the vocal cords and muscle that help move the vocal cords to produce speech. The epiglottis , attached to the thyroid cartilage, is a very flexible piece of elastic cartilage that covers the opening of the trachea see Figure The glottis is composed of the vestibular folds, the true vocal cords, and the space between these folds Figure A vestibular fold , or false vocal cord, is one of a pair of folded sections of mucous membrane.

A true vocal cord is one of the white, membranous folds attached by muscle to the thyroid and arytenoid cartilages of the larynx on their outer edges. The inner edges of the true vocal cords are free, allowing oscillation to produce sound. The size of the membranous folds of the true vocal cords differs between individuals, producing voices with different pitch ranges.

Folds in males tend to be larger than those in females, which create a deeper voice. The act of swallowing causes the pharynx and larynx to lift upward, allowing the pharynx to expand and the epiglottis of the larynx to swing downward, closing the opening to the trachea.

These movements produce a larger area for food to pass through, while preventing food and beverages from entering the trachea. Continuous with the laryngopharynx, the superior portion of the larynx is lined with stratified squamous epithelium, transitioning into pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium that contains goblet cells. Similar to the nasal cavity and nasopharynx, this specialized epithelium produces mucus to trap debris and pathogens as they enter the trachea.

The cilia beat the mucus upward towards the laryngopharynx, where it can be swallowed down the esophagus. The trachea windpipe extends from the larynx toward the lungs Figure The trachea is formed by 16 to 20 stacked, C-shaped pieces of hyaline cartilage that are connected by dense connective tissue. The trachealis muscle and elastic connective tissue together form the fibroelastic membrane , a flexible membrane that closes the posterior surface of the trachea, connecting the C-shaped cartilages.

The fibroelastic membrane allows the trachea to stretch and expand slightly during inhalation and exhalation, whereas the rings of cartilage provide structural support and prevent the trachea from collapsing. In addition, the trachealis muscle can be contracted to force air through the trachea during exhalation.

The trachea is lined with pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium, which is continuous with the larynx. The esophagus borders the trachea posteriorly. The trachea branches into the right and left primary bronchi at the carina. These bronchi are also lined by pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium containing mucus-producing goblet cells Figure The carina is a raised structure that contains specialized nervous tissue that induces violent coughing if a foreign body, such as food, is present.

Respiratory System

The respiratory system is the network of organs and tissues that help you breathe. It includes your airways, lungs, and blood vessels. The muscles that power your lungs are also part of the respiratory system. These parts work together to move oxygen throughout the body and clean out waste gases like carbon dioxide. The respiratory system has many functions. Besides helping you inhale breathe in and exhale breathe out , it:.

If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess Profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus. Please consult the latest official manual style if you have any questions regarding the format accuracy. The reader states the functions of the respiratory system and relates the structural organization of the system to its functions. Describes the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide with the atmosphere and relates gas exchange to the metabolism of the tissues of the body. Defines the role of the respiratory system in acid-base balance. Lists the nonrespiratory functions of the lungs. Defines and describes the alveolar-capillary unit, the site of gas exchange in the lungs.

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Anatomy of the Respiratory System in Children

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The respiratory system consists of all the organs involved in breathing. These include the nose, pharynx , larynx , trachea , bronchi and lungs. The respiratory system does two very important things: it brings oxygen into our bodies, which we need for our cells to live and function properly; and it helps us get rid of carbon dioxide, which is a waste product of cellular function.

Respiratory system , the system in living organisms that takes up oxygen and discharges carbon dioxide in order to satisfy energy requirements. In the living organism, energy is liberated, along with carbon dioxide, through the oxidation of molecules containing carbon. The term respiration denotes the exchange of the respiratory gases oxygen and carbon dioxide between the organism and the medium in which it lives and between the cells of the body and the tissue fluid that bathes them.

The respiratory tract is the subdivision of the respiratory system involved with the process of respiration in mammals. Air is breathed in through the nose to the nasal cavity , where a layer of nasal mucosa acts as a filter and traps pollutants and other harmful substances found in the air. Next, air moves into the pharynx , a passage that contains the intersection between the oesophagus and the larynx.

Respiratory system (pulmonary system) anatomy

The major organs of the respiratory system function primarily to provide oxygen to body tissues for cellular respiration, remove the waste product carbon dioxide, and help to maintain acid-base balance. Portions of the respiratory system are also used for non-vital functions, such as sensing odors, speech production, and for straining, such as during childbirth or coughing Figure Functionally, the respiratory system can be divided into a conducting zone and a respiratory zone.

Most of the organs of the respiratory system help to distribute air, but only the tiny, grape-like alveoli and the alveolar ducts are responsible for actual gas exchange. In addition to air distribution and gas exchange, the respiratory system filters, warms, and humidifies the air you breathe. Organs in the respiratory system also play a role in speech and the sense of smell. Upper respiratory tract: Composed of the nose, the pharynx, and the larynx, the organs of the upper respiratory tract are located outside the chest cavity.

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