File Name: agrarian class structure and economic development in pre-industrial europe .zip
- Brenner debate
- Investment Expenditures and the Transition from Feudalism to Capitalism
- Paradigms of poverty: A critical assessment of contemporary perspectives
There is a great deal of literature on the role of capital investment in the economic transition from feudalism to capitalism. Investment in capital and new technology and agricultural techniques has not been considered worthwhile in a medieval economy because of a lack of strong peasant property rights and no incentive on the part of lords and barons to lend money to peasant farmers. Therefore, the medieval economy and standards of living at that time have been characterized as non-dynamic and static due to insufficient investment in innovative techniques and technology. The capital investment undertaken typically would have been in livestock, homes, or public investment in canals, bridges, and roads, although investment in the latter would have been hindered by a fragmented political system of fiefdoms and lack of a unified national government. This paper attempts to demonstrate empirically that a productive and sufficient level of investment out of accumulated capital income, taxation, and rents does not have a real impact on economic per capita growth until the s in Britain perhaps due to the beginning of a strong, central government as well as to the level of capital, tax, and land income achieving an adequate threshold amount and providing some type of investment multiplier effect. A high wage share as a portion of national income also appears to be associated with higher investment levels. The types of investment, threshold amounts of investment out of profits and rents, and the price of labor seem to matter when it comes to raising GDP per capita to higher levels.
Keywords: Economic inequality, economic history, European economic history, pre-industrial age. Pages: Published by: Firenze University Press. Publication year: DOI: Edited by: Nigro, Giampiero. Cita come: Van Bavel, B.
Investment Expenditures and the Transition from Feudalism to Capitalism
Return to Home Page. Sixteenth- and seventeenth-century England witnessed an agricultural revolution which involved massive changes in land tenure, the organization of production on farms, the techniques employed in farming, and the productivity of agriculture. Thus the sixteenth century represented a sharp change in English rural life: the emergence of the capitalist farm in place of small-scale peasant cultivation, the intensification of market relations, increase in population, and eventual breakthrough to capitalist development in town and country. The social consequences of this revolution were massive as well: smallholding peasant farming gave way to larger capitalist farms; hundreds of thousands of displaced peasants were rapidly plunged into conditions of day labor, first in farming and then in manufacture in towns and cities; higher farm productivity permitted more rapid urbanization and the growth of an urban, commercialized economy; and higher real incomes provided higher levels of demand for finished goods which stimulated industrial development. Thus the agricultural revolution was the necessary prelude to the industrial revolution in England. It was indeed, in the last analysis, an agricultural revolution, based on the emergence of capitalist class relations in the countryside which made it possible for England to become the first nation to experience industrialization [through higher levels of grain productivity and higher income to stimulate demand for industrial goods].
Robert Brenner; AGRARIAN CLASS STRUCTURE AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN PRE-INDUSTRIAL EUROPE*, Past & Present, Volume 70, Issue 1, 1 February , Pages 30–75, h. Article PDF first page preview.
Paradigms of poverty: A critical assessment of contemporary perspectives
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Download to read the full article text. Aston, T. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.