# Demand Factor And Diversity Factor Pdf

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October 31, 96 Comments. Text Book of Design of Elect. Installation- Jain.

Definition: Diversity factor is defined as the ratio of the sum of the maximum demands of the various part of a system to the coincident maximum demand of the whole system. The maximum demands of the individual consumers of a group do not occur simultaneously. Thus, there is a diversity in the occurrence of the load.

## Demand factors for industrial facilities load calculation

There are two terms used in calculating loads in electrical systems that cause designers to get confused. Demand factor is the ratio of the maximum demand of a system, or part of a system, to the total connected load on the system, or part of the system under consideration. Demand factor is always less than one. Diversity factor is the ratio of the sum of the individual maximum demands of the various subdivisions of a system, or part of a system, to the maximum demand of the whole system, or part of the system, under consideration.

Diversity factor is usually more than one. For example, these terms, when used in an electrical design, should be applied as follows: The sum of the connected loads supplied by a feeder-circuit can be multiplied by the demand factor to determine the load used to size the components of the system.

The sum of the maximum demand loads for two or more feeders is divided by the diversity factor for the feeders to derive the maximum demand load. Use a diversity factor of 1. However, using the diversity factor of 1. For diversity factor of 1. Note that a kVA transformer can be used instead of an kVA when applying the 1. DEMAND FACTOR Although feeder-circuit conductors should have an ampacity sufficient to carry the load, the ampacity of the feeder-circuit need not always be equal to the total of all loads on all branch-circuits connected to it.

The difference between calculating branchcircuit loads and feeder-circuit loads is that a demand factor is not usually applied for a branch-circuit, but may be applied in the case of a feeder-circuit. The load on a service or feeder is the sum of all of the branch loads subject to their demand factors as permitted by the rules of this Section. Referring to Table All other occupancies are calculated on a basis of total computed lighting wattage, and no demand factor is permitted.

See Figure 1 General-purpose receptacle outlets used to cord-and-plug connect loads are considered to have noncontinuous operation and are calculated per Noncontinuously operated receptacles with a VA rating of 10, VA or less shall be computed at percent.

Step 1: Calculating the VA Table Figure 1. The above illustration shows the calculation of a demand factor load for a dwelling unit using Table Figure 2. The demand load for general-purpose receptacles for other than dwelling units is computed by using Table The demand factors shown in Table In no way do the demand factors apply to the electric heating, ventilating or air-conditioning equipment. In computing the demand, the demand load should not be less than the sum of the two largest kitchen equipment loads.

In other than dwelling units, a minimum of VA is computed for each general-purpose receptacle. For hospitals, hotels, motels, and warehouses, this receptacle load can be lumped with the lighting load, and the demand factors of Table The grounded neutral conductor service or feeder load should be considered wherever a grounded neutral conductor is used in conjunction with one or more ungrounded phase conductors.

On a single-phase feeder necdigest. Figure 4. The above calculation shows the procedure for computing the neutral for a service or feeder and applying demand factors per Where demand meters are used, in most cases the load as computed will probably be less than the demand meter indications.

Motor 1 2. Figure 5. The above illustration is the calculation for adding a load to an existing service or feedercircuit using If the maximum demand data for a one year period is not available, the calculated load is permitted to be based on the maximum demand measure of average power demand over a minute period continuously recorded over a minimum 30 day period using a recording ammeter or power meter connected to the highest loaded ungrounded phase of the feeder or service, based on the initial loading at the start of the recording.

See Figure 6 Step 5: Determining if load can be added A is less than A Solution: The amp load can be applied to the existing feeder-circuit conductors. Figure 6. The above illustration shows the optional calculation being applied for adding a load to an existing feeder-circuit using Because of the particular application, certain motors do not operate together and the feeder-circuit conductors are permitted to be sized based on a historical demand factor.

For example, the authority having jurisdiction may grant permission to allow a demand factor of less than percent if operation procedures, production demands, or the nature of the work is such that not all the motors are running at one time.

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## Diversity Vs. Demand: Don't Be Confused by These Terms

Premium Membership. Learn from experienced power engineers. Originally published at Electrical Notes — Articles. It is great work thank you. If I had refrigerating firm house how could I calculate the factors that affect the power?

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Demand Factor = Maximum demand of a system / Total connected load on the system · Demand factor is always less than one. · Example: if a.

## Demand Factor-Diversity Factor-Utilization Factor-Load Factor

#### Common Terms

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