File Name: philosophy and human social development .zip
The term egalitarianism has two distinct definitions in modern English,  either as a political doctrine that all people should be treated as equals and have the same political , economic , social and civil rights ,  or as a social philosophy advocating the removal of economic inequalities among people , economic egalitarianism , or the decentralization of power. Some sources define egalitarianism as equality reflecting the natural state of humanity.
Human behaviour , the potential and expressed capacity for physical, mental, and social activity during the phases of human life. Humans, like other animal species, have a typical life course that consists of successive phases of growth, each of which is characterized by a distinct set of physical, physiological, and behavioral features.
These phases are prenatal life, infancy , childhood , adolescence , and adulthood including old age. Human development , or developmental psychology, is a field of study that attempts to describe and explain the changes in human cognitive , emotional, and behavioral capabilities and functioning over the entire life span , from the fetus to old age.
Most scientific research on human development has concentrated on the period from birth through early adolescence, owing to both the rapidity and magnitude of the psychological changes observed during those phases and to the fact that they culminate in the optimum mental functioning of early adulthood.
A primary motivation of many investigators in the field has been to determine how the culminating mental abilities of adulthood were reached during the preceding phases. This essay will concentrate, therefore, on human development during the first 12 years of life.
This article discusses the development of human behaviour. For treatment of biological development, see human development. For further treatment of particular facets of behavioral development, see emotion ; learning theory ; motivation ; perception ; personality ; and sexual behaviour, human. Various disorders with significant behavioral manifestations are discussed in mental disorder. The systematic study of children is less than years old, and the vast majority of its research has been published since the mids.
Basic philosophical differences over the fundamental nature of children and their growth occupied psychologists during much of the 20th century. Most researchers came to recognize, however, that it is the interaction of inborn biological factors with external factors, rather than the mutually exclusive action or predominance of one or the other force, that guides and influences human development. The advances in cognition , emotion , and behaviour that normally occur at certain points in the life span require both maturation i.
Generally, maturation by itself cannot cause a psychological function to emerge; it does, however, permit such a function to occur and sets limits on its earliest time of appearance. Three prominent theories of human development emerged in the 20th century, each addressing different aspects of psychological growth. In retrospect, these and other theories seem to have been neither logically rigorous nor able to account for both intellectual and emotional growth within the same framework.
Research in the field has thus tended to be descriptive, since developmental psychology lacks a tight net of interlocking theoretical propositions that reliably permit satisfying explanations.
Early psychoanalytic theories of human behaviour were set forth most notably by Austrian neurologist Sigmund Freud. During the first postnatal year, libido is initially focused on the mouth and its activities; nursing enables the infant to derive gratification through a pleasurable reduction of tension in the oral region.
Freud called this the oral stage of development. During the second year, the source of excitation is said to shift to the anal area, and the start of toilet training leads the child to invest libido in the anal functions. Freud called this period of development the anal stage. The half dozen years before puberty are called the latency stage. During the final and so-called genital stage of development, mature gratification is sought in a heterosexual love relationship with another.
Freud believed that adult emotional problems result from either deprivation or excessive gratification during the oral, anal, or phallic stages. A child with libido fixated at one of these stages would in adulthood show specific neurotic symptoms, such as anxiety. Freud devised an influential theory of personality structure.
During infancy and childhood, the ego , which is the reality-oriented portion of the personality, develops to balance and complement the id. The ego utilizes a variety of conscious and unconscious mental processes to try to satisfy id instincts while also trying to maintain the individual comfortably in relation to the environment.
Child development , according to Freud, is thus primarily concerned with the emergence of the functions of the ego, which is responsible for channeling the discharge of fundamental drives and for controlling intellectual and perceptual functions in the process of negotiating realistically with the outside world. Although Freud made great contributions to psychological theory—particularly in his concept of unconscious urges and motivations—his elegant concepts cannot be verified through scientific experimentation and empirical observation.
But his concentration on emotional development in early childhood influenced even those schools of thought that rejected his theories. The belief that personality is affected by both biological and psychosocial forces operating principally within the family, with the major foundations being laid early in life, continues to prove fruitful in research on infant and child development.
Erikson viewed emotional development over the life span as a sequence of stages during which there occur important inner conflicts whose successful resolution depends on both the child and his or her environment. These conflicts can be thought of as interactions between instinctual drives and motives on the one hand and social and other external factors on the other. Erikson evolved eight stages of development, the first four of which are: 1 infancy, trust versus mistrust, 2 early childhood, autonomy versus shame and doubt, 3 preschool, initiative versus guilt, and 4 school age, industry versus inferiority.
Conflicts at any one stage must be resolved if personality problems are to be avoided. Human behaviour Article Media Additional Info. Article Contents. Table Of Contents. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies.
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Human development is about the real freedom ordinary people have to decide who to be, what to do, and how to live. The human development concept was developed by economist Mahbub ul Haq. At the World Bank in the s, and later as minister of finance in his own country, Pakistan, Dr. In particular, he believed that the commonly used measure of Gross Domestic Product failed to adequately measure well-being. Central to the human development approach is the concept of capabilities. Capabilities—what people can do and what they can become-are the equipment one has to pursue a life of value. Basic capabilities valued by virtually everyone include: good health, access to knowledge, and a decent material standard of living.
Philosophy of human rights
The philosophy of human rights attempts to examine the underlying basis of the concept of human rights and critically looks at its content and justification. Several theoretical approaches have been advanced to explain how and why the concept of human rights developed. One of the oldest Western philosophies on human rights is that they are a product of a natural law, stemming from different philosophical or religious grounds. Other theories hold that human rights codify moral behavior which is a human social product developed by a process of biological and social evolution associated with Hume. Human rights are also described as a sociological pattern of rule setting as in the sociological theory of law and the work of Weber.
Social and political philosophy, like Ethics, is a normative pursuit, and a conception of what constitutes moral actions for individuals is integral to how they relate to the community the larger social group to which they belongs. As we look at how specific philosophers view the relationship of the individual to society, and what makes a society good, notice that a particular conception of human nature will underly theories on the relationship between individuals and their society, be it a local community or a nation. He believed that achieving virtue and acquiring a sense of self-identity require social interaction and working with others. Humans are, by nature, social creatures who live in groups, and life in a community the city is necessary for a complete human life. The interest of the city is more important than that of an individual. Public interests take precedence over individual ones. Besides, the notion of a city naturally precedes that of a family or an individual, for the whole must necessarily be prior to the parts, for if you take away the whole man, you cannot say a foot or a hand remains, unless by equivocation, as supposing a hand of stone to be made, but that would only be a dead one; but everything is understood to be this or that by its energic qualities and powers, so that when these no longer remain, neither can that be said to be the same, but something of the same name.
Social change involves alteration of the social order of a society. It may include changes in social institutions , social behaviours or social relations. Social change may refer to the notion of social progress or sociocultural evolution , the philosophical idea that society moves forward by evolutionary means.
This topic aims to show how child development and culture are connected, how these influences manifest themselves, and the effects of cultural differences on children of immigrant families. Importantly, the form that behaviors take may appear identical across cultures. Yet, given that cultures vary in their customs and beliefs, the same behavior may be interpreted differently across cultures. Moreover, the means by which the given behavior is encouraged or discouraged may be culturally determined and defined. The etic perspective may cause researchers to operationally define and thus assess constructs in the same ways with the same methods and measures across cultures. Thus, the etic approach may result in overlooking culturally-specific definitions of given constructs. For example, researchers may assume that social competence, as a construct, is universally relevant and that it can be measured by assessments created in, for example, North American laboratories.
PDF | The author analyzes the correlation between the development of society of the world and the place of the human in it” (Philosophy of.
The American Human Development Index
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