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- Historical Pragmatics Study
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- Linguistic Politeness—A Major Tool for Cross-cultural Requests
- Historical Pragmatics Study
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Juliane House born  is a German linguist and translation studies scholar. Later, she worked as a translator and researcher. Her research interests include translation theory and practice, contrastive pragmatics, discourse analysis, politeness theory, English as lingua franca, intercultural communication, and global business communication.
Historical Pragmatics Study
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No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of Oxford University Press. ISBN 1. Interlanguage Language learning 2. Speech acts Linguistics I. Blum-Kulka, Shoshana. As its name betrays, ILP belongs to two different disciplines, both of which are interdisciplinary.
As a branch of Second Language Acquisition Research, ILP is one of several specializations in interlanguage studies, contrasting with interlanguage phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics. As a subset of pragmatics, ILP figures as a sociolinguistic, psycholinguistic, or simply linguistic enterprise, depending on how one defines the scope of "pragmatics.
The perspective on pragmatics we adopt is an action-theoretical one, viewing pragmatics as the study of people's comprehension and production of linguistic action in context.
Interlanguage pragmatics has consequently been defined as the study of nonnative speakers' use and acquisition of linguistic action patterns in a second language L2 e.
Yet tying interlanguage pragmatics to nonnative speakers, or language learners, may narrow its scope too restrictively. The intercultural style hypothesis is supported by many studies of cross-cultural communication, notably interactional sociolinguistics e. It also receives strong anecdotal support, worthy of systematic investigation, by highly proficient nonnative speakers whose L2 conversational behavior carries interlanguage-specific traits, and who claim at the same time that they do not abide by native norms any more when conversing in their native language.
For instance, one of us was told by several of her Chinese students that in response to invitations and offers they wish to accept, they no longer engage 3 4 Interlanguage Pragmatics: An Introduction in ritual refusal, as required by traditional Chinese culture.
Some of her Japanese students claim that they are much more direct in their interaction in Japanese than they used to be before extended exposure to Western ways. Emerging intercultural styles, so prevalent in the international academic community, deserve interlanguage pragmaticists' close attention. Hence, it appears useful to include under ILP the study of intercultural styles brought about through language contact, the conditions for their emergence and change, the relationship to their substrata, and their communicative effectiveness.
A look at the literature on ILP cf. While the present collection largely follows this line, Blum-Kulka and Sheffer Chapter 10 extend the perspective to include native speakers' intercultural styles. Furthermore, according to researchers' labeling of their objects of study, ILP predominantly refers to the comprehension and production of linguistic action, including discourse regulation.
An area of study that most investigators would clearly recognize as "pragmatic" yet that is not usually included under ILP is communication strategies. The de facto separation of pragmatics and communication strategies in second language studies reflects different alignments chosen by researchers in each area.
The study of communication strategies has predominantly been grounded in psycholinguistic models of cognitive processing e. For the most part, research on communication strategies has examined learners' solutions to referential problems; ILP has focused on the illocutionary and politeness dimensions of speech act performance. While this division of labor reflects different research traditions, it has little theoretical support.
In Bachman's84ff. Strategic competence is seen as processing ability, operating on the language competence in its entirety and including "strategic" solutions to comprehension or production problems. In this volume, strategic aspects of speech act performance and discourse participation are examined by Weizman Chapter 6Aston Chapter 11and House Chapter 8 ; processing considerations for pragmatic development are proposed by Schmidt Chapter 1 and Bialystok Chapter 2.
Domains of ILP Pragmatic Comprehension Early studies focused on learners' attribution of illocutionary force and perception of politeness. Research on the attribution of illocutionary force has centered on the comprehension of indirect speech acts, factors contributing to ease or difficulty of pragmatic comprehension, the role of linguistic form and context information, and Interlanguage Pragmatics: An Introduction 5 learner variables influencing force attribution.
Carrell demonstrated that advanced L2 learners have complete access to conversational implicature, and make full use of their inferential ability in the comprehension of indirect speech acts. The only stumbling block for these learners was the "pope answer," a highly culturespecific violation of the maxim of relation. Bouton was interested in the impact of cultural background on the comprehension of indirect answers. He found a significant difference between six groups of learners from different cultural backgrounds and native speakers of American English.
Comparison of the learner groups showed similar perceptions for German, Spanish-Portugese, and Taiwanese learners, differing from those of Korean, Japanese, and Chinese learners from the People's Republic of China. In addition to influence from learners' cultural background, Bouton also established an effect for type of implicature.
Comprehension was easiest when the relevance maxim had been violated, whereas understated negative evaluation, a violation of the maxim of quantity, was more difficult to understand, for nonnative speakers as well as native speakers. In examining the relative effect of linguistic form and context information on learners' perception of indirect requests, Carrell la, b found that learners primarily relied on linguistic utterance features, regardless of their linguistic and cultural background, age, and proficiency.
Her findings are at odds with those established by Ervin-Tripp, Strage, Lampert, and Bellwho found that children acquirifig their first LI and second language strongly base their pragmatic comprehension on situational information, disregarding form. Bialystok, Chapter 2. The apparent conflict in outcomes of Carrell's and Ervin-Tripp et al. In a series of experiments, Gibbs demonstrated that listeners directly access nonliteral meanings if linguistic forms and situational contexts are conventionalized.
Absence of familiar and appropriate contexts and novel, nonconventionalized utterances requires sequential processing of literal and nonliteral meaning. Carrell's studies precisely illustrate the second condition, since the highly abstract task her subjects were faced with could only be solved via bottom-up processing.
Ervin-Tripp et al. In partial replication of Gibbs's research on the processing of conventionally indirect requests e. Models of pragmatic comprehension, representing a variety of theoretical orientations, are reviewed by House Chapter 8who also offers an analysis of learners' pragmatic comprehension in ongoing interaction. In all of the studies cited above, English figures as L2. The only study on force attribution by learners of a different target language is a small investigation by Koikewho examined how beginning classroom learners of Spanish with 6 Interlanguage Pragmatics: An Introduction English as LI understood a Spanish request, apology, and command.
In seeking cues to decide on force, learners were shown to rely most frequently on formulaic illocutionary force indicators such as "por favor" and "lo siento," and on words with key prepositional meanings. A related line of inquiry has examined how learners assess the politeness value of different speech act realization strategies. Results confirm learners' ability to distinguish different degrees of politeness in conventions of means and forms, although their perceptions do not always agree with those of native speakers.
Japanese learners of English largely agreed with American native speakers in their relative politeness judgments of syntactic modes imperative, declarative, interrogativethe politeness marker "please," and of deferential address terms, but they differed in the politeness values attributed to request modification by tense and modals.
Whereas American informants perceived positively worded requests as more polite than negatively worded ones, this assessment was not shared by the Japanese raters. Learners' differential politeness perceptions have been attributed to a variety of factors. Learners were found to differ in the extent to which they base their politeness perceptions in L2 on those in LI. Spanish learners of English did not transfer their LI perceptions of formally equivalent requestive strategies to L2, rating their Spanish requests as more deferential than their English counterparts Eraser et al.
Length of residence rather than L2 proficiency accounted for differential politeness perceptions in learners and L2 native speakers. The rec. Comparing the perceptions of politeness in request strategies by Japanese EFL and ESL learners, Kitao found that exposure to English accounted for different ratings between those groups.
In addition to learners' assessments of pragmalinguistic information, a few studies have also examined nonnative speakers' sociopragmatic perceptions. Probing into learners' "universal" and culture-specific assumptions about apology frequency and realization, Olshtain found that for Russian learners of Hebrew, the event rather than culture and language were the decisive variables. Englishspeaking learners felt less need to apologize in Hebrew than in English, thus suggesting a culture-specific approach.
Asked to assess the weight and values of contextual factors in apologizing, German learners of English were found largely to Interlanguage Pragmatics: An Introduction 7 agree with native speakers of British English, except for degree of imposition involved in the apology, which the German raters found to be consistently higher than the English judges House, The factor on which these informants differed most was obligation to apologize.
Japanese learners of English reported that in American society, refusal was a more socially acceptable act than in Japan, and could therefore appropriately be carried out more directly Robinson, There are very few studies that examine learners' sociopragmatic perceptions by direct probing, such as rating tasks e.
Many more studies infer learners' L2 sociopragmatic knowledge through their production. Thus Beebe and collaborators e. What research still needs to demonstrate is how learners' sociopragmatic perceptions change over time, and how such change is reflected in their linguistic action patterns. Production of Linguistic Action The available evidence suggests that regardless of a particular L1 and L2, and of the type of learning context naturalistic vs.
The main obstacle to learners' exploiting their "general pragmatic knowledge base" Blum-Kulka, appears to be their restricted L2 linguistic knowledge, or difficulty in accessing it smoothly e. But other factors intervene: a lack of L2 pragmalinguistic sophistication, combined with negative transfer of sociopragmatic norms from LI or nonnative perceptions of L2 sociopragmatic norms, or even purposeful loyalty to LI cultural patterns, may yield deviations from native use at high proficiency levels as well Blum-Kulka, Until the scope of target languages has been considerably broadened, universality claims need to be voiced with caution.
Learners' distribution patterns of strategies and forms have been shown to vary from those of native speakers. Some studies report that learners prefer more direct modes of conveying pragmatic intent than native speakers; others suggest the oppo- 8 Interlanguage Pragmatics: An Introduction site. Explanations of these findings have been sought in the scope of learners' linguistic IL knowledge, transfer from L Iand perceptions of what is sociopragmatically appropriate in the target community.
Some studies noted differences in politeness approach between native speakers and nonnative speakers. Venezuelan Spanishspeaking learners of English systematically used positive politeness strategies when apologizing to a host for not having attended her party, whereas American English native speakers preferred a negative politeness approach Garcia, In order to repair uncomfortable moments in academic advising sessions at an American university, students who were native speakers of English predominantly relied on positive politeness strategies, while Taiwanese students adopted a negative politeness approach Fiksdal American informants in status-higher positions tended to preface a correction by a positive remark, whereas Japanese nonnative speakers used this solidarity strategy very infrequently.
Nonnative speakers' strategy choice is sometimes less responsive to contextual factors than native speakers'. Japanese learners of English used the same direct, barely mitigated requestive strategies in conversation with status-unequal and socially distant interlocutors as with status-equal and familiar coparticipants, whereas American English controls varied their request behavior in the two conditions Tanaka, Japanese learners of English also underdifferentiated their realizations of offers and requests in three conditions of social distance Fukushima, While some of these findings may simply reflect the state of learners' lexical and syntactic knowledge, the issue becomes a clearly pragmalinguistic one when learners demonstrably "know" a particular lexical item or syntactic structure yet use it in a way that does not convey the intended illocutionary force or politeness value.
In the interlanguage Interlanguage Pragmatics: An Introduction 9 of nonnative speakers of Hebrew, requests are lended an unintended whining emphasis by the use of "bevakasha" please in sentence-initial rather than intra- or postsentential position, and such pragmalinguistic deviations are singled out by native judges as "nonnative" Blum-Kulka, One area where insufficient control of pragmalinguistic knowledge is particularly obvious is that of pragmatic routines.
Coulmas's contention that routine formulas are a serious stumbling block for nonnative speakers has been supported by nearly every ILP study e. There is evidence of learners supplying near-literal translations of LI routines: for example, the German, "entschuldigen Sie bitte" English, "excuse me, please" instead of "I'm sorry" House, ; of using a translation equivalent for an LI routine where none is used in L2, such as prefacing a high-imposition request with "I'm sorry" from Japanese "sumimasen" or "gomennasai" [Fukushima, ] ; and of failing to use any kind of routine where one would be required, such as failing to offer an expression of gratitude Kasper, At the nonroutinized end of speech act production, learners have been found to engage in more speech activity than native speakers.
According to Blum-Kulka and Olshtainwaffling is proficiency-dependent, being strongest at an intermediate stage when learners possess the linguistic means to say as much as they wish, yet at the same time feel more of a need to be explicit about their communicative goals and the reasoning behind them than more acculturated nonnative speakers do.
Edmondson and House point out, however, that the waffling effect in speech act realization is observable only in learners' written responses to production questionnaires, not in role-plays. Kasper eds. Cross-cultural pragmatics. Your email address will not be published. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Skip to content. Interlanguage Pragmatics As a subset of pragmatics, ILP figures as a sociolinguistic, psycholinguistic, or simply linguistic enterprise, depending on how one defines the scope of "pragmatics.
Other studies in developmental pragmatics e. Information Whereas American informants perceived positively worded requests as more polite than negatively worded ones, this assessment was not shared by the Japanese raters.
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Blum kulka house and kasper 1989 pdf printer
Bachman, L. Fundamental considerations in language testing. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Blum-Kulka, S. Cross-cultural Pragmatics: Requests and Apologies. Norwood: Ablex Publishing Corporation. Boxer, D.
Linguistic Politeness—A Major Tool for Cross-cultural Requests
This content was uploaded by our users and we assume good faith they have the permission to share this book. If you own the copyright to this book and it is wrongfully on our website, we offer a simple DMCA procedure to remove your content from our site. Start by pressing the button below! Interlanguage Pragmatics Home Interlanguage Pragmatics. Published by Oxford University Press, Inc.
Historical Pragmatics Study
Abstract One of the defining characteristics of pragmatic competence is the ability to use appropriate lexico-grammatical and syntactic indirectness strategies Blum-Kulka et al. Writing a complaint letter to an authority figure requires high pragmatic competence. However, even if learners have a good command of grammar, they fail to express and comprehend the intended illocutionary meaning. This study aims to examine request forms used by Turkish learners of English and NSs of English in complaint letters.
Takwa Bosuwon received her B. Her current interests are English reading-writing instruction, language test development, and intercultural communication. Abdolrezapour, P. The effect of expectation of compliance on the preferred request strategy: Cross-cultural and situational variation in Iranian and American speech communities. Australian Journal of Linguistics, 32 3 , The effects of using mitigation devices on request compliance in Persian and American English. Discourse Studies, 14 2 ,
This study uses Blum-Kulka, House, and Kasper's () speech act framework employees write to their subordinates, colleagues, and superiors in the work-.
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Le discours est un aspect essentiel du langage. Discourse is an integral aspect of language but also that aspect that is mostclosely related to cultural values. This article presents contrastive studies indiscourse, how they have been conducted and possible problems in some of thedata collection techniques. It is argued that a discourse typology of languagescan be developed alongside grammatical typology. Among the applications ofcontrastive discourse are cross-cultural understanding and language teaching. Then I will summarize briefly some of the findings, suggest how the findings can be interpreted in a broader sense, and finally how they can be applied.
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