Cro And Function Generator Pdf

cro and function generator pdf

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Published: 05.05.2021

Project Mentor: Prof. CRO is a basic instrument employed for the study of several types of waveforms. It can measure various quantities such as peak voltage, frequency, phase difference, pulse-width, delay time, rise time, and fall time.


Function generator specifications vary widely because there are several different types of this test instrument that are available ranging from analogue to digital, and according to their cost. Although there are many different function generator specifications, the main ones are summarised below:. Checking that the performance parameters and overall function generator specifications meet the requirements is important before investing in the purchase or hire of one of these test instruments. Most of the specifications and performance parameters are relatively straightforward and have been detailed here as ideas for a check list. It is worth checking the specifications of these individual waveforms. Although this produces a good representation of a sine wave, the distortion levels will be higher than sine waves produced by other test instruments such as purpose designed sine wave generators that use different techniques internally to generate the sine wave.

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Function Generators

A function generator is a signal source that has the capability of producing different types of waveforms as its output signal. The most common output waveforms are sine-waves, triangular waves , square waves , and sawtooth waves. The frequencies of such waveforms may be adjusted from a fraction of a hertz to several hundred kHz. Actually, the function generators are very versatile instruments as they are capable of producing a wide variety of waveforms and frequencies. In fact, each of the waveforms they generate is particularly suitable for a different group of applications. The uses of sinusoidal outputs and square-wave outputs have already been described in the earlier Arts.


An oscilloscope , previously called an oscillograph , [1] [2] and informally known as a scope or o-scope , CRO for cathode-ray oscilloscope , or DSO for the more modern digital storage oscilloscope , is a type of electronic test instrument that graphically displays varying signal voltages , usually as a calibrated two-dimensional plot of one or more signals as a function of time. The displayed waveform can then be analyzed for properties such as amplitude , frequency , rise time , time interval, distortion , and others. Originally, calculation of these values required manually measuring the waveform against the scales built into the screen of the instrument. The oscilloscope can be adjusted so that repetitive signals can be observed as a persistent waveform on the screen.

Function Generator Specifications & Performance Parameters


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Both function generators and oscilloscopes are highly sophisticated and technologically mature Figure 2: Digital scope display of a 1 kHz sine wave from a function generator and its associated Available online (large PDF) or by request.