File Name: milk kefir nutritional microbiological and health benefits .zip
- Milk ke fi r : nutritional , microbiological and health bene fi ts
- The Microbiota and Health Promoting Characteristics of the Fermented Beverage Kefir
- Fermentation of plant-based milk alternatives for improved flavour and nutritional value
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There is a huge demand for food-derived polysaccharides in the field of materials research due to the increasing concerns posed by synthetic biopolymers. The scientific community is extensively searching for other natural, food-derived or bio-inspired polymers that possess promising potentials and advantageous properties that can be promptly utilized for multifarious applications. Kefiran, a food-derived microbial exopolysaccharide extracted from kefir grains has exhibited evidence of non-toxicity, anti-microbial activity, nutritional value, and other favourable characteristics. This review aims to shed light on the properties of kefiran and provide an overview of its applications in the agri-food and biomedical sectors.
Milk ke fi r : nutritional , microbiological and health bene fi ts
After fermentation, free amino acids were Glutamic acid was majority in both, suggesting that microbial proteolysis leads to an increase in free amino acids including glutamic acid. Lactococcus lactis , Kazachstania unispora , and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated as major microorganisms in both kefirs. Both kefirs also exhibited antioxidant activity and bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli , Salmonella Typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. Kefir is a fermented beverage consumed since ancient times that presents typical flavour characteristics through the presence of lactic and acetic acids, ethanol, and carbon dioxide. Several health-promoting properties have been associated with kefir consumption [ 1 ], and various properties including antitumor, antibacterial, antioxidant, antifungal, antimutagenic, and hypocholesterolaemia have been demonstrated [ 2 — 4 ].
The Microbiota and Health Promoting Characteristics of the Fermented Beverage Kefir
Kefir is fermented milk produced from grains that comprise a specific and complex mixture of bacteria and yeasts that live in a symbiotic association. Kefir originates from the Caucasus and Tibet. Recently, kefir has raised interest in the scientific community due to its numerous beneficial effects on health. Currently, several scientific studies have supported the health benefits of kefir, as reported historically as a probiotic drink with great potential in health promotion, as well as being a safe and inexpensive food, easily produced at home. Regular consumption of kefir has been associated with improved digestion and tolerance to lactose, antibacterial effect, hypocholesterolaemic effect, control of plasma glucose, anti-hypertensive effect, anti-inflammatory effect, antioxidant activity, anti-carcinogenic activity, anti-allergenic activity and healing effects. A large proportion of the studies that support these findings were conducted in vitro or in animal models. However, there is a need for systematic clinical trials to better understand the effects of regular use of kefir as part of a diet, and for their effect on preventing diseases.
Fermentation of plant-based milk alternatives for improved flavour and nutritional value
Non-dairy milk alternatives or milk analogues are water extracts of plants and have become increasingly popular for human nutrition. Over the years, the global market for these products has become a multi-billion dollar business and will reach a value of approximately 26 billion USD within the next 5 years. Moreover, many consumers demand plant-based milk alternatives for sustainability, health-related, lifestyle and dietary reasons, resulting in an abundance of products based on nuts, seeds or beans. Unfortunately, plant-based milk alternatives are often nutritionally unbalanced, and their flavour profiles limit their acceptance.
Kefir's History. Kefir dates back many centuries to the shepherds of the Caucasus mountains. They discovered that fresh milk carried in leather pouches would occasionally ferment into an effervescent beverage.
Kefir is consumed around the world and has been for centuries. It is a fermented milk drink developed in the northern Caucasus Mountains, according to popular belief.
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Kefir is a complex fermented dairy product created through the symbiotic fermentation of milk by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts contained within an exopolysaccharide and protein complex called a kefir grain. As with other fermented dairy products, kefir has been associated with a range of health benefits such as cholesterol metabolism and angiotensin-converting enzyme ACE inhibition, antimicrobial activity, tumor suppression, increased speed of wound healing, and modulation of the immune system including the alleviation of allergy and asthma. These reports have led to increased interest in kefir as a focus of research and as a potential probiotic-containing product. Here, we review those studies with a particular emphasis on the microbial composition and the health benefits of the product, as well as discussing the further development of kefir as an important probiotic product.
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