File Name: althusser ideology and ideological state apparatuses .zip
- The Rhetoric of Social Control
- Repressive State Apparatus
- Chapter 3. Critical Pedagogy within an Ideological State Apparatus
In order to unfix schools, making them dynamic and critical places of engagement, educators must review and revive their critical roots through Marx to overcome the educational necrophilia that has simply overwhelmed schools through the material conditions both within and without. Critical pedagogy is insufficient for such a project, with some iterations of it becoming errors of commission. For Althusser, this fight is wholly material, manifesting within the reproductive practices of the ideological apparati.
This chapter explores social control from a theoretical perspective based on rhetoric. The chapter highlights three theorists whose insights enable us to see how social control functions. First, the chapter examines the work of Michel Foucault, in particular his notions of power, as they relate to the way social control operates. Second, key concepts from Antonio Gramsci reveal the ways in which social control discursively sustains its hold on society. Finally, the work of Louis Althusser is discussed, especially his notion of interpellation, as it yields a way to view how ideology and social control are interrelated rhetorically.
The Rhetoric of Social Control
First published in , it advances Althusser's theory of ideology. Where Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels posited a thinly-sketched theory of ideology as false consciousness , Althusser draws upon the works of later theorists such as Antonio Gramsci , Sigmund Freud and Jacques Lacan to proffer a more elaborate redefinition of the theory. Althusser's theory of ideology has remained influential since it was written. Althusser begins the essay by reiterating the Marxist theory that in order to exist, a social formation is required to essentially, continuously and perpetually reproduce the productive forces labour power and means of production , the conditions of production and the relations of production. The reproduction of labour power is ensured by the wage system which pays a minimum amount to the workers so that they appear to work day after day, thereby limiting their vertical mobility. The Marxist spatial metaphor of the edifice describes a social formation constituted by the foundational infrastructure, i. A detailed description of both structures is provided below:.
Repressive State Apparatus
I reflect on a series of events in which a state forest department in South India attempted to recast violent conflicts between themselves and local communities over access to natural resources and a protected area as a debate over human-wildlife conflicts. Through the example of conservation as ideology in Wayanad, Kerala, I show how the ISAs articulate the functioning of ideology within the state apparatuses in order for us to understand the larger mechanics of the state apparatus and the reproduction of the relations of production necessary for the reproduction of capitalism. Revisiting the ISAs as a theoretical framework for studies in political ecology and conservation is timely given the resurgence of militarised conservation tactics, the emancipatory aims of Althusser's theory, and political ecology's turn towards praxis. Agrawal, A. Environmentality: technologies of government and the making of subjects. Durham: Duke University Press.
In contemporary capitalist societies education has replaced the Church as the principal ideological state apparatus. Beyond reproducing the assumption that the state itself reflects a particular class interest, the theory of ideological state apparatus has also been criticized for simplifying relations between these institutions and the state, and underestimating their autonomy or potential for such autonomy. It also allowed too facile an equation of challenging authority within education with weakening the capitalist system as a whole. February 24, Retrieved February 24, from Encyclopedia. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.
Chapter 3. Critical Pedagogy within an Ideological State Apparatus
Notes on Interpellation. The term interpellation was an idea introduced by Louis Althusser to explain the way in which ideas get into our heads and have an effect on our lives, so much so that cultural ideas have such a hold on us that we believe they are our own. Ideologies — our attitudes towards gender, class, and race — should be thought of more as social processes. For Althusser , interpellation works in a manner much like giving a person a name, or calling out to them in the street.
Все это вранье, и ты это отлично знаешь. Скажи мне, что происходит. Сьюзан прищурилась.
Мидж… - Джабба попробовал извиниться. - Позволь мне объяснить. - Голос его, однако, мягче не. - Во-первых, у нас есть фильтр, именуемый Сквозь строй, - он не пропустит ни один вирус.
Без воска, Дэвид. Она просияла и прижала записку к груди. Это был Дэвид, кто же. Без воска… Этот шифр она еще не разгадала. Что-то шевельнулось в углу.
Убийца улыбнулся и начал поднимать пистолет. Заслонка.