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- Ethics: Theory and Practice, 11th Edition
- discussion question and 3 student reponses
- Ethics: Theory and Practice, Updated Edition, 11th Edition
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Ethics: Theory and Practice, 11th Edition
Utilitarianism, by John Stuart Mill, is an essay written to provide support for the value of utilitarianism as a moral theory, and to respond to misconceptions about it. Mill defines utilitarianism as a theory based on the principle that "actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness.
He argues that pleasure can differ in quality and quantity, and that pleasures that are rooted in one's higher faculties should be weighted more heavily than baser pleasures. Furthermore, Mill argues that people's achievement of goals and ends, such as virtuous living, should be counted as part of their happiness. Mill argues that utilitarianism coincides with "natural" sentiments that originate from humans' social nature.
Therefore, if society were to embrace utilitarianism as an ethic, people would naturally internalize these standards as morally binding. Mill argues that happiness is the sole basis of morality, and that people never desire anything but happiness. He supports this claim by showing that all the other objects of people's desire are either means to happiness, or included in the definition of happiness.
Mill explains at length that the sentiment of justice is actually based on utility, and that rights exist only because they are necessary for human happiness. The theory of utilitarianism has been criticized for many reasons. Critics hold that it does not provide adequate protection for individual rights, that not everything can be measured by the same standard, and that happiness is more complex than reflected by the theory.
Mill's essay represents his attempt to respond to these criticisms, and thereby to provide a more complex and nuanced moral theory. Mill's argument comprises five chapters. His first chapter serves as an introduction to the essay. In his second chapter, Mill discusses the definition of utilitarianism, and presents some misconceptions about the theory. The third chapter is a discussion about the ultimate sanctions or rewards that utilitarianism can offer.
The fourth chapter discusses methods of proving the validity of utilitarianism. In his fifth chapter, Mill writes about the connection between justice and utility, and argues that happiness is the foundation of justice.
Review Quiz Study Questions Bibliography. Summary Summary. Next section Context. Popular pages: Utilitarianism. Take a Study Break.
View larger. Jacques P. Thiroux first wrote this text in order to educate readers about ethical theory and its applications in a way that beginning students could understand. The text is fully updated with global issues and non-Western ethical views. Keith W.
Chapter Summary. Exercises for Review. Discussion Questions. Notes. Supplementary Reading. VII. 1. VII. Page 2. Contents o. • CHAPTER 3. N.
discussion question and 3 student reponses
Utilitarianism, by John Stuart Mill, is an essay written to provide support for the value of utilitarianism as a moral theory, and to respond to misconceptions about it. Mill defines utilitarianism as a theory based on the principle that "actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness. He argues that pleasure can differ in quality and quantity, and that pleasures that are rooted in one's higher faculties should be weighted more heavily than baser pleasures.
If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess Profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus. Please consult the latest official manual style if you have any questions regarding the format accuracy. This chapter discusses the second topic that is essential to the analysis of an ethical problem in clinical medicine, namely, the preferences of patients.
Ethics: Theory and Practice, Updated Edition, 11th Edition
The words "moral" and "ethics" and cognates are often used interchangeably. However, it is useful to make the following distinction:. A theory is a structured set of statements used to explain or predict a set of facts or concepts. Seen in this light, it becomes clear that we cannot draw a sharp divide between moral theory and applied ethics e. For instance, in order to critically evaluate the moral issue of affirmative action, we must not attempt to evaluate what actions or policies are right or wrong independent of what we take to determine right and wrong conduct. You will see, as we proceed, that we do not do ethics without at least some moral theory. Most take moral theories to be prescriptive.
Because virtue ethics emphasizes individual character and conscience, it can have a tremendous influence on organizational culture by encouraging individuals to stand up for sound, ethical, and responsible business practices. Wholeheartedness and sincerity require not just competence but compassion when dealing with stakeholders and making executive decisions. Reflecting the overall Confucian concern for balance, they temper initiative and boldness with self-regulation. In Confucian ethics, the locus of ethics and moral decision making was the family rather than the individual. The most important value was the development of humanity and putting an end to anarchy, and this was done best in the context of the family.
Consequentialist theories base moral right and wrong solely upon effects; deontological theories reject consequences as the basis of right and wrong and focus instead on our duty to act or not act in certain sorts of ways. Deontological theories also usually emphasize the morality of our motives and intentions. Ross offers an intuitionist theory that includes seven basic moral duties. It resembles a deontological theory in that these duties prescribe general kinds of acts, and they do not rest on their possible consequences. Ross initially considers all of these duties to be conditional duties; when two or more duties conflict, one of them then will override the other, and the overriding duty becomes our actual duty in that situation.
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Это нацарапал мой дружок… ужасно глупо, правда. Беккер не мог выдавить ни слова. Проваливай и умри. Он не верил своим глазам. Немец не хотел его оскорбить, он пытался помочь. Беккер посмотрел на ее лицо.
Пол был уставлен десятками больничных коек. В дальнем углу, прямо под табло, которое когда-то показывало счет проходивших здесь матчей, он увидел слегка покосившуюся телефонную будку. Дай Бог, чтобы телефон работал, мысленно взмолился Беккер.
Сьюзан - это единственное, что не позволит Стратмору меня уничтожить. - Сьюзан, - сказал он, волоча ее к лестнице, - уходи со. Клянусь, что я тебя пальцем не трону. Сьюзан пыталась вырваться из его рук, и он понял, что его ждут новые проблемы. Если даже он каким-то образом откроет лифт и спустится на нем вместе со Сьюзан, она попытается вырваться, как только они окажутся на улице.
Мне больно! - задыхаясь, крикнула Сьюзан. Она судорожно ловила ртом воздух, извиваясь в руках Хейла. Он хотел было отпустить ее и броситься к лифту Стратмора, но это было бы чистым безумием: все равно он не знает кода.
Он помнил, что сказал Клушар: немец нанял девушку на весь уик-энд.