File Name: 200 paper planes to fold and fly .zip
A paper plane , paper aeroplane UK , paper airplane US , paper glider , paper dart or dart is a toy aircraft, usually a glider made out of folded paper or paperboard. The origin of folded paper gliders is generally considered to be of Ancient China, although there is equal evidence that the refinement and development of folded gliders took place in equal measure in Japan.
200 Paper Planes to fold & fly
A paper plane , paper aeroplane UK , paper airplane US , paper glider , paper dart or dart is a toy aircraft, usually a glider made out of folded paper or paperboard. The origin of folded paper gliders is generally considered to be of Ancient China, although there is equal evidence that the refinement and development of folded gliders took place in equal measure in Japan. Certainly, manufacture of paper on a widespread scale took place in China BCE, and origami and paper folding became popular within a century of this period, approximately BCE.
It is impossible to ascertain where and in what form the first paper aircraft were constructed, or even the first paper plane's form. For over a thousand years after this, paper aircraft were the dominant man-made heavier-than-air craft whose principles could be readily appreciated, though thanks to their high drag coefficients, not of an exceptional performance when gliding over long distances.
The pioneers of powered flight have all studied paper model aircraft in order to design larger machines. Leonardo wrote of the building of a model plane out of parchment , and of testing some of his early ornithopter , an aircraft that flies by flapping wings, and parachute designs using paper models.
Thereafter, Sir George Cayley explored the performance of paper gliders in the late 19th century. Charles Langley, and Alberto Santos-Dumont often tested ideas with paper as well as balsa models to confirm in scale their theories before putting them into practice. With time, many other designers have improved and developed the paper model, while using it as a fundamentally useful tool in aircraft design. One of the earliest known applied as in compound structures and many other aerodynamic refinements modern paper plane was in In Jack Northrop co-founder of Lockheed Corporation used paper planes as test models for larger aircraft.
In Germany, during the Great Depression, designers at Heinkel and Junkers used paper models in order to establish basic performance and structural forms in important projects, such as the Heinkel and Junkers 88 tactical bomber programmes. In recent times, paper model aircraft have gained great sophistication, and very high flight performance far removed from their origami origins, yet even origami aircraft have gained many new and exciting designs over the years, and gained much in terms of flight performance.
There have been many design improvements, including velocity , lift , propulsion ,  style and fashion, over subsequent years. Technology responsible [ citation needed ] for the proliferation of advanced paper plane construction:.
Compared to balsa wood, another material commonly used to fabricate model planes, paper's density is higher; consequentially, conventional origami paper gliders see above suffer from higher drag, as well as imperfectly aerodynamic wing chords. Unmodified origami paper aircraft have very poor glide ratios , often not better than 7. Often, increases in wing loading can encourage breakdown of laminar flow over a wing with a hybrid of origami and glued and taped construction.
Professors Ninomiya and Mathews see sections below developed more directed design strategies in the late s and the s. Previously, paper model aircraft had been designed without an emphasis on performance in flight.
By using aerodynamic design, and fluid dynamics, both professors were able to design models that exceeded previous flight performance criteria by a very wide margin. At present, the work of the two professors remains the last serious research work on improving the flight performance of paper model gliders. Collaborative work by enthusiasts through online forums and personal websites are mostly developments of these original glider types.
In the field of scale model design, there are at present many possibilities for advanced design. Profile gliders encounter a limitation for improvement of flight performance based on their wing types, which are typically curved-plate aerofoils. In addition, fuselages are either balsa-paper or paper laminates, prone to warping or breakage over a very short time.
Improvement in performance is possible through modelling three-dimensional fuselages which encourage laminar flow, and in internally braced wings which can then have high-lift aerofoil profiles, such as the Clark Y or NACA 4 or 6 series, for high lift.
In Japan in the late s, Professor Yasuaki Ninomiya designed an advanced type of paper aircraft, which were published in two books, Jet Age Jamboree and Airborne All-Stars Designs from these books were later sold as the 'White Wings' Series of paper glider packs from the s to the present day. White Wings are a stark departure from conventional paper aircraft, in that their fuselages and wings are paper templates cut and glued together.
They were designed with the aid of low-speed aerodynamic engineering design principles. Construction of the models is of Kent paper, a grade of cartridge paper sold in Japan. The early models were explicitly hand drawn, but by the s these had their parts drafted with the use of CAD software.
Ninomiya's designs also included, for the first time in any paper model, working propellers driven by airflow, in particular for his profile scale models of the Cessna Skymaster and Piaggio P. Noteworthy as well was the careful design of gliders so that they could fly without ballast — his F-4 Phantom II model is able to be flown immediately without recourse to paperclips etc.
The high performance gliders have fuselages that are kept rigid by the use of a balsa fuselage profile bonded to the paper components. The paper used is quite heavy, approximately twice the weight of standard drawing cartridge paper, but lighter than lightweight cardboard. Original White Wings were entirely paper, requiring patience and skill. Later however, balsa-wood fuselages were used, and White Wings were sold "pre-cut", making construction easier.
In , Professor E. Mathews, lecturer in Thermodynamics at the University of the Witwatersrand , South Africa published his first compendium of high-performance model aircraft. This book was Paper Pilot Struik, This book was very successful, leading to additional volumes, Paper Pilot 2 , Paper Pilot 3 , 12 Planes for the Paper Pilot and Ju , a stand-alone book featuring a scale model.
Unpublished models include an Airbus A scale model much like the Ju, seen on the Tekkies youth program in The books featured patterns of parts printed on lightweight cardstock, to give the aircraft good flight penetration performance for long distance flight. Public interest in the gliders, and their publishing success, allowed some of the development to be broadcast on South African television during on the first book's release, and again , to coincide with a national paper aeroplane competition tied to Paper Pilot 3's release.
Aerodynamic design of the gliders was achieved making use of an optimised small wind tunnel - the flat-glider Britten Norman Trislander was filmed in this facility, with weight balances being used to demonstrate the optimisation of flight.
The design of parts of the gliders was achieved using Autodesk AutoCAD R12, then the most advanced version of this CAD software, and one of the first publicly available paper model aeroplanes designed using this technology. Construction of the gliders closely parallels that used in the White Wings series of gliders of Dr. Ninomiya for flat gliders. Later gliders with three-dimensional fuselages use a lightweight construction optimised for flight performance.
Innovations include functional wheeled undercarriage which does not contribute to the drag budget while permitting good landings. Paper pilot gliders make use a curved-plate aerofoil shape for best performance.
Their design, like the White Wings gliders, is very sensitive to trim, and in fact have the capacity to make indoor flights in confined spaces under average conditions. Most in initial editions are equipped with catapult hook patterns, and demonstrate an ability to fly the length of a Rugby pitch when so launched. Later editions and gliders were equipped with a Bungee hook, the construction of which was included in Paper Pilot 3 and 12 Planes for the Paper Pilot.
The Bungee system publish parallels, at a smaller scale, the practice used in radio controlled and full-size sailplane launches, at a fraction of the cost and complexity. To date, this is the only known example of such a launch system applied to a paper model aeroplane type published in book form. Flight performance on bungee is very good - one glider in particular, a scale model U-2 in the last book of the series had demonstrated flight performance in excess of meters, on bungee hook launch.
A unique development of Prof. Mathews is the Papercopter , a model helicopter whose 'wing' is a trimmable annular ring which, using rotational aerodynamics to provide good forward flight performance without need for a tail rotor. A model helicopter 'body' is suspended beneath the ring, and uses airflow to stabilise itself in the direction of flight, much like a weather vane.
Its wings fly in a circle around a central ballast shaft as it descends vertically. This basic design has been published several times and is widely known. The world's first known published forward-gliding paper autogyro with forward-pointing body lifted by spinning blades was built by James Zongker. Its twin contra-rotating blades automatically spin on paper axles upon launch to provide lift.
As noted above see entry, Paper Pilot , E. Mathews developed a flight-stable paper model helicopter. This has a ring wing, and flaps for adjusting for flight for stability, positioned on the inboard edge of the ring.
While not an autogyro per se, this paper model aircraft class falls within the general design of a paper model helicopter, and does possess a rotational flight element producing lift during forward flight. The longest flight time is For every goal there is a typical plane and sometimes a world record. There have been many attempts over the years to break the barriers of throwing a paper plane for the longest time aloft. Ken Blackburn held this Guinness World Record for 13 years — and had regained the record on October by keeping his paper plane aloft for This was confirmed by Guinness officials and a CNN report.
As of [update] , Takuo Toda holds the world record for the longest time in air Paper aircraft are a class of model plane, and so do not experience aerodynamic forces differently from other types of flying model.
However, their construction material produces a number of dissimilar effects on flight performance in comparison with aircraft built from different materials. In general, there are four aerodynamic forces that act on the paper aircraft while it is in flight:. Altogether, the aerodynamic forces co-interact, creating turbulence that amplifies small changes in the surface of the paper aircraft.
Modifications can be made to most paper airplanes by bending, curving or making small cuts in the trailing edges of wings and in the airplane's tail, if it has one. The most common adjustments, modelled after glider aircraft, are ailerons , elevators , and rudders. The Reynolds number range of the paper model aircraft is reasonably wide:.
These ranges are indicative. Paper models typically have a wing aspect ratio that is very high model sailplanes or very low the classic paper dart , and therefore are in almost all cases flying at velocities far below their wing planform and aerofoil Critical Re , where flow would break down from laminar to turbulent.
Most origami paper darts tend to be flying within turbulent air in any case, and as such, are important to research into turbulent flow as are low-Re lifting surfaces found in nature such as leaves of trees and plants as well as the wings of insects. High performance profile and scale models do approach their wing section's critical Re in flight, which is a noteworthy achievement in terms of paper model design.
Performance is derived of the fact that wings of these gliders are in fact performing as well as it is possible for them to perform, given their material limitations.
Experiments in different material finishes in recent years have revealed some interesting relationships in Re and paper models. Performance of origami and compound origami structures improves markedly with the introduction of smooth paper, though this is also aided by the paper's higher mass and consequently better penetration. More marginal performance and scale types generally do not benefit from heavier, shinier surfaces.
Scale types have experience negative performance at the addition of heavy shiny papers in their construction. Camber of profiles varies, too. In general, the lower the Re, the greater the camber. Origami types will have 'ludicrous' or very high cambers in comparison with more marginally performing scale types, whose escalating masses demand higher flying speeds and so lower induced drag from high camber, though this will vary depending on type being modelled.
In the case of scale performance and scale models, the modellers intent will define the type of aerofoil section chosen. WWI biplanes, if designed for flight performance, will often have curved-plate aerofoils, as these produce a highly cambered surfaces and Coefficient of Lift Cl for low gliding airspeeds.
WWII monoplanes will often have very scale-like sections, though with increased trailing edge droop to improve camber in comparison with scale counterparts.
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Paper Airplane Designs
Paper Airplane Designs A database of paper airplanes with easy to follow folding instructions, video tutorials and printable folding plans. Find the best paper airplanes that fly the furthest and stay aloft the longest. Hangar current. Search Airplanes 47 out of 47 showing. Show all.
Each sheet of this bumper, tear-off pad can easily be folded into a brightly patterned paper plane. The cover folds out to reveal simple instructions for making each type of plane and flying tips are included at the back. Put your flying skills to the test with these spectacular paper planes.
We steered closer, unnerved, getting a fist in the mouth for his trouble. If none of the memorized cards help them, but it was only after a long and arduous courtship. Milo waved them over and gave them instructions.
Each sheet of this bumper, tear-off pad can easily be folded into a brightly patterned paper plane.
Ну и. Для того и предназначен этот переключатель, верно. Мидж покачала головой.
Это был опытный образец нового компьютера Монокль, разработанного ВМС США для проверки напряжения аккумуляторов в труднодоступных отделениях подводных лодок - миниатюрный аппарат, совмещенный с сотовым модемом, последнее достижение микротехнологии. Его визуальный монитор - дисплей на жидких кристаллах - был вмонтирован в левую линзу очков. Монокль явился провозвестником новой эры персональных компьютеров: благодаря ему пользователь имел возможность просматривать поступающую информацию и одновременно контактировать с окружающим миром. Кардинальное отличие Монокля заключалось не в его миниатюрном дисплее, а в системе ввода информации.
Но Соши, опередив его, уже отдала команду. - Утечка прекратилась! - крикнул техник. - Вторжение прекращено. Наверху, на экране ВР, возникла первая из пяти защитных стен. Черные атакующие линии начали исчезать.
Стратмору едва не удалось сделать предлагаемый стандарт шифрования величайшим достижением АНБ: если бы он был принят, у агентства появился бы ключ для взлома любого шифра в Америке. Люди, знающие толк в компьютерах, пришли в неистовство.
Я жду. Бринкерхофф застонал, сожалея, что попросил ее проверить отчет шифровалки. Он опустил глаза и посмотрел на ее протянутую руку. - Речь идет о засекреченной информации, хранящейся в личном помещении директора. Ты только представь себе, что будет, если об этом станет известно.
Не сомневаюсь, - подумала. Сьюзан никогда еще не видела шефа столь подавленным. Его редеющие седые волосы спутались, и даже несмотря на прохладу, создаваемую мощным кондиционером, на лбу у него выступили капельки пота. Его костюм выглядел так, будто он в нем спал. Стратмор сидел за современным письменным столом с двумя клавиатурами и монитором в расположенной сбоку нише.
Охранник залюбовался Сьюзан, шедшей по бетонной дорожке. Он обратил внимание, что сегодня взгляд ее карих глаз казался отсутствующим, но на щеках играл свежий румянец, а рыжеватые до плеч волосы были только что высушены. От нее исходил легкий аромат присыпки Джонсонс беби. Его взгляд скользнул по стройной фигурке, задержался на белой блузке с едва различимым под ней бюстгальтером, на юбке до колен цвета хаки и, наконец, на ее ногах… ногах Сьюзан Флетчер.
Капля Росы. Он слышал приятный голос сеньора Ролдана из агентства сопровождения Белена. У нас только две рыжеволосые… Две рыжеволосые, Иммакулада и Росио… Росио… Росио… Беккер остановился как вкопанный.
Он стремительно развернулся и едва сдержал крик. Никого. Дэвид Беккер исчез.
Он задерживается. ГЛАВА 16 - Кольцо? - не веря своим ушам, переспросила Сьюзан. - С руки Танкадо исчезло кольцо. - Да. К счастью, Дэвид это обнаружил.