File Name: flavor chemistry of fats and oils file.zip
Fats and oils predominantly are triesters triacylglycerols, triglycerides of glycerol and aliphatic fatty acids generally containing up to 24 carbon atoms. Waxes are esters of long-chain fatty acids, usually containing 24 to 28 carbon atoms, with long-chain primary alcohols 16 to 36 carbon atoms , or with alcohols of the steroid group. Unable to display preview.
Provincial regulations may also have labelling requirements that apply when these products are sold within that province. The labelling requirements detailed in the following section are specific to fats and oils. Refer to the Industry Labelling Tool for core labelling and voluntary claims and statements requirements that apply to all prepackaged foods. For fat and oil products that meet one of the standards prescribed in Division 9 of the FDR , the name appearing in bold-face type in the FDR is the appropriate common name of that product. Where there is no specific standard for a fat or oil in the FDR or other federal regulations, other national or international standards are referred to in order to determine an appropriate common name.
Vegetable oils , or vegetable fats , are oils extracted from seeds or, less often, from other parts of fruits.
Like animal fats , vegetable fats are mixtures of triglycerides. Olive oil , palm oil , and rice bran oil are examples of fats from other parts of fruits. In common usage, vegetable oil may refer exclusively to vegetable fats which are liquid at room temperature. Oils extracted from plants have been used since ancient times and in many cultures. As an example, in a 4,year-old kitchen unearthed in Indiana's Charlestown State Park , archaeologist Bob McCullough of Indiana University-Purdue University Fort Wayne found evidence that large slabs of rock were used to crush hickory nuts and the oil was then extracted with boiling water.
In addition to use as food, fats and oils both vegetable and mineral have long been used as fuel, typically in lamps which were a principal source of illumination in ancient times. Oils may have been used for lubrication, but there is no evidence for this. Vegetable oils were probably more valuable as food and lamp-oil; Babylonian mineral oil was known to be used as fuel, but there are no references to lubrication.
Pliny the Elder reported that fats such as lard were used to lubricate the axles of carts. Many vegetable oils are consumed directly, or indirectly as ingredients in food — a role that they share with some animal fats , including butter , ghee , lard , and schmaltz. The oils serve a number of purposes in this role:. Oils for this purpose must have a high flash point. Such oils include the major cooking oils — soybean , rapeseed , canola , sunflower , safflower , peanut , cottonseed , etc.
Tropical oils, such as coconut , palm , and rice bran oils, are particularly valued in Asian cultures for high-temperature cooking, because of their unusually high flash points.
Unsaturated vegetable oils can be transformed through partial or complete " hydrogenation " into oils of higher melting point. The hydrogenation process involves " sparging " the oil at high temperature and pressure with hydrogen in the presence of a catalyst , typically a powdered nickel compound.
As each carbon-carbon double-bond is chemically reduced to a single bond, two hydrogen atoms each form single bonds with the two carbon atoms. The elimination of double bonds by adding hydrogen atoms is called saturation ; as the degree of saturation increases, the oil progresses toward being fully hydrogenated.
An oil may be hydrogenated to increase resistance to rancidity oxidation or to change its physical characteristics. As the degree of saturation increases, the oil's viscosity and melting point increase. The use of hydrogenated oils in foods has never been completely satisfactory. Because the center arm of the triglyceride is shielded somewhat by the end fatty acids, most of the hydrogenation occurs on the end fatty acids, thus making the resulting fat more brittle.
Partially hydrogenated oils and their trans fats have been linked to an increased risk of mortality from coronary heart disease ,  among other increased health risks. In the US, the Standard of Identity for a product labeled as "vegetable oil margarine" specifies only canola, safflower, sunflower, corn, soybean, or peanut oil may be used. Many vegetable oils are used to make soaps, skin products, candles, perfumes and other personal care and cosmetic products.
Some oils are particularly suitable as drying oils , and are used in making paints and other wood treatment products. Dammar oil a mixture of linseed oil and dammar resin , for example, is used almost exclusively in treating the hulls of wooden boats. Vegetable oils are increasingly being used in the electrical industry as insulators as vegetable oils are not toxic to the environment, biodegradable if spilled and have high flash and fire points.
However, vegetable oils are less stable chemically, so they are generally used in systems where they are not exposed to oxygen , and they are more expensive than crude oil distillate. Synthetic tetraesters, which are similar to vegetable oils but with four fatty acid chains compared to the normal three found in a natural ester, are manufactured by Fischer esterification. Tetraesters generally have high stability to oxidation and have found use as engine lubricants. One limiting factor in industrial uses of vegetable oils is that all such oils are susceptible to becoming rancid.
Oils that are more stable, such as ben oil or mineral oil , are thus preferred for industrial uses. Castor oil has numerous industrial uses, owing to the presence of hydroxyl group on the fatty acid. Castor oil is a precursor to Nylon Vegetable oil is used in the production of some pet foods.
AAFCO  defines vegetable oil, in this context, as the product of vegetable origin obtained by extracting the oil from seeds or fruits which are processed for edible purposes. Vegetable oils are also used to make biodiesel , which can be used like conventional diesel. Some vegetable oil blends are used in unmodified vehicles but straight vegetable oil , also known as pure plant oil, needs specially prepared vehicles which have a method of heating the oil to reduce its viscosity.
The use of vegetable oils as alternative energy is growing and the availability of biodiesel around the world is increasing. The production process of vegetable oil involves the removal of oil from plant components, typically seeds.
This can be done via mechanical extraction using an oil mill or chemical extraction using a solvent. The extracted oil can then be purified and, if required, refined or chemically altered.
Oils can be removed via mechanical extraction, termed "crushing" or "pressing. Oilseed presses are commonly used in developing countries, among people for whom other extraction methods would be prohibitively expensive; the ghani is primarily used in India. The processing of vegetable oil in commercial applications is commonly done by chemical extraction, using solvent extracts, which produces higher yields and is quicker and less expensive.
The most common solvent is petroleum-derived hexane. This technique is used for most of the "newer" industrial oils such as soybean and corn oils. Supercritical carbon dioxide can be used as a non-toxic alternative to other solvents. Oils may be partially hydrogenated to produce various ingredient oils. Lightly hydrogenated oils have very similar physical characteristics to regular soy oil, but are more resistant to becoming rancid. Hardening vegetable oil is done by raising a blend of vegetable oil and a catalyst in near-vacuum to very high temperatures, and introducing hydrogen.
This causes the carbon atoms of the oil to break double-bonds with other carbons, each carbon forming a new single-bond with a hydrogen atom. Adding these hydrogen atoms to the oil makes it more solid, raises the smoke point , and makes the oil more stable. Hydrogenated vegetable oils differ in two major ways from other oils which are equally saturated.
During hydrogenation, it is easier for hydrogen to come into contact with the fatty acids on the end of the triglyceride, and less easy for them to come into contact with the center fatty acid.
This makes the resulting fat more brittle than a tropical oil; soy margarines are less "spreadable". Hydrogenated oils, especially partially hydrogenated oils with their higher amounts of trans fatty acids, are increasingly thought to be unhealthy.
The water immediately is converted to steam, which bubbles through the oil, carrying with it any chemicals which are water-soluble. The steam sparging removes impurities that can impart unwanted flavors and odors to the oil. Deodorization is key to the manufacture of vegetable oils. Nearly all soybean, corn, and canola oils found on supermarket shelves go through a deodorization stage that removes trace amounts of odors and flavors, and lightens the color of the oil.
People can breathe in vegetable oil mist in the workplace. The U. Typical productivity of some oil crops, measured in tons t of oil produced per hectare ha of land per year yr. Oil palm is by far the highest yielding crop, capable of producing about 4 tons of palm oil per hectare per year. The following triglyceride vegetable oils account for almost all worldwide production, by volume. All are used as both cooking oils and as SVO or to make biodiesel. Note that these figures include industrial and animal feed use.
The majority of European rapeseed oil production is used to produce biodiesel, or used directly as fuel in diesel cars which may require modification to heat the oil to reduce its higher viscosity. The suitability of the fuel should come as little surprise, as Rudolf Diesel 's original engine to ran on peanut oil as well as mineral oil. Such oils have been part of human culture for millennia [ citation needed ]. Poppy seed , rapeseed , linseed , almond oil , sesame seed , safflower , and cottonseed were used since at least the Bronze Age throughout the Middle East, Africa and Central Asia [ citation needed ].
Vegetable oils have been used for lighting fuel, cooking, medicine and lubrication. The Chinese started to use vegetable oil for stir-frying instead of animal fats during the Song dynasty — [ citation needed ]. Palm oil has long been recognized in West and Central African countries, and European merchants trading with West Africa occasionally purchased palm oil for use as a cooking oil in Europe and it became highly sought-after commodity by British traders for use as an industrial lubricant for machinery during Britain's Industrial Revolution.
In , Carl Wilhelm Scheele demonstrated that fats were derived from glycerol. Wilhelm Normann , a German chemist introduced the hydrogenation of liquid fats in , creating what later became known as trans fats , leading to the development of the global production of margarine and vegetable shortening. Ginning mills were happy to have someone haul away the cotton seeds.
The extracted oil was refined and partially hydrogenated to give a solid at room temperature and thus mimic natural lard, and canned under nitrogen gas. Soybean oil has been used in China since before historical records [ citation needed ]. It arrived in the USA in the s. Soy was protein-rich, and the medium viscosity oil was high in polyunsaturates. Henry Ford established a soybean research laboratory, developed soybean plastics and a soy-based synthetic wool, and built a car "almost entirely" out of soybeans.
In , world production was at The early 20th century also saw the start of the use of vegetable oil as a fuel in diesel engines and in heating oil burners. Rudolf Diesel designed his engine to run on vegetable oil. The idea, he hoped, would make his engines more attractive to farmers having a source of fuel readily available. Diesel's first engine ran on its own power for the first time in Augsburg , Germany, on 10 August on nothing but peanut oil. In remembrance of this event, 10 August has been declared " International Biodiesel Day ".
The s also saw the formation of the first commercial enterprise to allow consumers to run straight vegetable oil in their vehicles. However, Biodiesel , produced from oils or fats using transesterification is more widely used.
It is Led by Brazil, many countries built Biodiesel plants during the s, and it is now widely available for use in motor vehicles, and is the most common biofuel in Europe today.
In the mids, Canadian researchers developed a low-erucic-acid rapeseed cultivar. Because the word "rape" was not considered optimal for marketing, they coined the name "canola" from "Canada Oil low acid". Food and Drug Administration approved use of the canola name in January ,  and U. Canola oil is lower in saturated fats, and higher in monounsaturates.
Canola is very thin unlike corn oil and flavorless unlike olive oil , so it largely succeeds by displacing soy oil, just as soy oil largely succeeded by displacing cottonseed oil.
Animal and Vegetable Fats, Oils and Waxes
These metrics are regularly updated to reflect usage leading up to the last few days. Citations are the number of other articles citing this article, calculated by Crossref and updated daily. Find more information about Crossref citation counts. The Altmetric Attention Score is a quantitative measure of the attention that a research article has received online. Clicking on the donut icon will load a page at altmetric.
Property Search. My Knovel. My Folder. Unit Converter. More Tools. Learn how to download the Knovel Mobile app for offline content access. Learn about Knovel workflow integrations with engineering software and information discovery platforms.
However, it is difficult to agree on common terms for any particular odor or flavor of a fat by sensory panel. Page and it is controversial about what compounds.
Labelling requirements for fats and oils
These metrics are regularly updated to reflect usage leading up to the last few days. Citations are the number of other articles citing this article, calculated by Crossref and updated daily. Find more information about Crossref citation counts. The Altmetric Attention Score is a quantitative measure of the attention that a research article has received online.
Vegetable oils , or vegetable fats , are oils extracted from seeds or, less often, from other parts of fruits. Like animal fats , vegetable fats are mixtures of triglycerides. Olive oil , palm oil , and rice bran oil are examples of fats from other parts of fruits. In common usage, vegetable oil may refer exclusively to vegetable fats which are liquid at room temperature.
Cooking oil is plant, animal, or synthetic fat used in frying, baking, and other types of cooking. It is also used in food preparation and flavouring not involving heat, such as salad dressings and bread dippings like bread dips, and may be called edible oil. Cooking oil is typically a liquid at room temperature, although some oils that contain saturated fat, such as coconut oil , palm oil and palm kernel oil are solid. There is a wide variety of cooking oils from plant sources such as olive oil , palm oil , soybean oil , canola oil rapeseed oil , corn oil , peanut oil and other vegetable oils , as well as animal-based oils like butter and lard.
Действительно. - Клушар вздохнул с видом мученика, вынужденного терпеть всякий сброд.
Мы залепили ее пластырем. Сьюзан лишилась дара речи. Перед камерой появился агент Смит. - Мы выстрелили в него новым Джей-23, это нервно-паралитическое вещество продолжительного действия. Конечно, это чертовски болезненно, но нам нужно было его остановить.
Беккер оглядел затейливое убранство бара и подумал, что все, что с ним происходит, похоже на сон. В любой другой реальности было бы куда больше здравого смысла. Я, университетский профессор, - подумал он, - выполняю секретную миссию.
Сьюзан повернулась к Беккеру и усмехнулась: - Похоже, у этого Халохота дурная привычка сообщать об убийстве, когда жертва еще дышит. Камера последовала за Халохотом, двинувшимся в направлении жертвы. Внезапно откуда-то появился пожилой человек, подбежал к Танкадо и опустился возле него на колени. Халохот замедлил шаги. Мгновение спустя появились еще двое - тучный мужчина и рыжеволосая женщина.
Неужели АНБ прослушивает мои телефонные разговоры. Стратмор виновато улыбнулся. - Сегодня утром Дэвид рассказал мне о ваших планах. Он сказал, что ты будешь очень расстроена, если поездку придется отложить. Сьюзан растерялась.
Стратмор сурово посмотрел на. - Этот алгоритм создал один самых блестящих умов в криптографии. Сьюзан пришла в еще большее смятение: самые блестящие умы в криптографии работают в ее отделе, и уж она-то наверняка хоть что-нибудь услышала бы об этом алгоритме.
Провал Стратмора дорого стоил агентству, и Мидж чувствовала свою вину - не потому, что могла бы предвидеть неудачу коммандера, а потому, что эти действия были предприняты за спиной директора Фонтейна, а Мидж платили именно за то, чтобы она эту спину прикрывала. Директор старался в такие дела не вмешиваться, и это делало его уязвимым, а Мидж постоянно нервничала по этому поводу. Но директор давным-давно взял за правило умывать руки, позволяя своим умным сотрудникам заниматься своим делом, - именно так он вел себя по отношению к Тревору Стратмору. - Мидж, тебе отлично известно, что Стратмор всего себя отдает работе.
Как ты не понимаешь, что я ко всему этому непричастен.