File Name: effects of air pollution on plants animals and humans creator.zip
As a result of our awareness toward environment and the allied issues, we are concerned about pollution problems. These concerns range from odor problem to destruction of ozone layer in our atmosphere.
Understanding Air Pollution Control Equipment
Heavy metals are among the most important sorts of contaminant in the environment. Several methods already used to clean up the environment from these kinds of contaminants, but most of them are costly and difficult to get optimum results.
Currently, phytoremediation is an effective and affordable technological solution used to extract or remove inactive metals and metal pollutants from contaminated soil and water.
This technology is environmental friendly and potentially cost effective. This paper aims to compile some information about heavy metals of arsenic, lead, and mercury As, Pb, and Hg sources, effects and their treatment. It also reviews deeply about phytoremediation technology, including the heavy metal uptake mechanisms and several research studies associated about the topics. Additionally, it describes several sources and the effects of As, Pb, and Hg on the environment, the advantages of this kind of technology for reducing them, and also heavy metal uptake mechanisms in phytoremediation technology as well as the factors affecting the uptake mechanisms.
Some recommended plants which are commonly used in phytoremediation and their capability to reduce the contaminant are also reported. Heavy metals are among the contaminants in the environment. Beside the natural activities, almost all human activities also have potential contribution to produce heavy metals as side effects. Migration of these contaminants into noncontaminated areas as dust or leachates through the soil and spreading of heavy metals containing sewage sludge are a few examples of events contributing towards contamination of the ecosystems [ 1 ].
Several methods are already being used to clean up the environment from these kinds of contaminants, but most of them are costly and far away from their optimum performance. The chemical technologies generate large volumetric sludge and increase the costs [ 2 ]; chemical and thermal methods are both technically difficult and expensive that all of these methods can also degrade the valuable component of soils [ 3 ].
Conventionally, remediation of heavy-metal-contaminated soils involves either onsite management or excavation and subsequent disposal to a landfill site. This method of disposal solely shifts the contamination problem elsewhere along with the hazards associated with transportation of contaminated soil and migration of contaminants from landfill into an adjacent environment. Soil washing for removing contaminated soil is an alternative way to excavation and disposal to landfill.
This method is very costy and produces a residue rich in heavy metals, which will require further treatment. Moreover, these physio-chemical technologies used for soil remediation render the land usage as a medium for plant growth, as they remove all biological activities [ 1 ].
Recent concerns regarding the environmental contamination have initiated the development of appropriate technologies to assess the presence and mobility of metals in soil [ 4 ], water, and wastewater. Presently, phytoremediation has become an effective and affordable technological solution used to extract or remove inactive metals and metal pollutants from contaminated soil. Phytoremediation is the use of plants to clean up a contamination from soils, sediments, and water.
This technology is environmental friendly and potentially costeffective. Plants with exceptional metal-accumulating capacity are known as hyperaccumulator plants [ 5 ]. Phytoremediation takes the advantage of the unique and selective uptake capabilities of plant root systems, together with the translocation, bioaccumulation, and contaminant degradation abilities of the entire plant body [ 3 ].
Many species of plants have been successful in absorbing contaminants such as lead, cadmium, chromium, arsenic, and various radionuclides from soils. One of phytoremediation categories, phytoextraction, can be used to remove heavy metals from soil using its ability to uptake metals which are essential for plant growth Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Mg, Mo, and Ni.
The objectives of this paper are to discuss the potential of phytoremediation technique on treating heavy metal-contaminated side, to provide a brief view about heavy metals uptake mechanisms by plant, to give some description about the performance of several types of plants to uptake heavy metals and to describe about the fate of heavy metals in plant tissue, especially on arsenic As , lead Pb , and mercury Hg. This study is related to a research project that aims to identify potential plants in tropical country such as Malaysia which can uptake heavy metal contaminants from petrochemical wastewater.
Metals are natural components in soil [ 6 ]. Some of these metals are micronutrients necessary for plant growth, such as Zn, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Co, while others have unknown biological function, such as Cd, Pb, and Hg [ 1 ]. Metal pollution has harmful effect on biological systems and does not undergo biodegradation. Toxic heavy metals such as Pb, Co, Cd can be differentiated from other pollutants, since they cannot be biodegraded but can be accumulated in living organisms, thus causing various diseases and disorders even in relatively lower concentrations [ 7 ].
Heavy metals, with soil residence times of thousands of years, pose numerous health dangers to higher organisms. They are also known to have effect on plant growth, ground cover and have a negative impact on soil microflora [ 8 ].
It is well known that heavy metals cannot be chemically degraded and need to be physically removed or be transformed into nontoxic compounds [ 1 ].
Arsenic atomic number 33 is a silver-grey brittle crystalline solid with atomic weight of Arsenic is odorless and tasteless. Arsenic can combine with other elements to form inorganic and organic arsenicals [ 10 ]. In the environment, arsenic is combined with oxygen, chlorine, and sulfur to form inorganic arsenic compounds.
Inorganic arsenic compounds are mainly used to preserve wood. Organic arsenic compounds are used as pesticides, primarily on cotton plants [ 11 ]. Environmental forms include arsenious acids H 3 AsO 3 , H 3 AsO 3 , , arsenic acids H 3 AsO 4 , , , arsenites, arsenates, methylarsenic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, and arsine.
From both the biological and the toxicological points of view, arsenic compounds can be classified into three major groups. These groups are inorganic arsenic compounds, organic arsenic compounds, and arsine gas [ 13 ]. It is a hard acid and preferentially complexes with oxides and nitrogen. Trivalent arsenites predominate in moderately reducing anaerobic environments such as groundwater [ 9 ]. The most common trivalent inorganic arsenic compounds are arsenic trioxide, sodium arsenite, and arsenic trichloride [ 13 ].
Arsenic is one of the contaminants found in the environment which is notoriously toxic to man and other living organisms [ 14 ]. It is a highly toxic element that exists in various species, and the toxicity of arsenic depends on its species.
The pH, redox conditions, surrounding mineral composition, and microbial activities affect the form inorganic or organic and the oxidation state of arsenic. In general, inorganic compounds of arsenic are regarded as more highly toxic than most organic forms which are less toxic [ 10 , 14 , 16 , 17 ].
The trivalent compounds arsenites are more toxic than the pentavalent compounds arsenates [ 16 , 17 ]. However, the trivalent methylated arsenic species have been found to be more toxic than inorganic arsenic because they are more efficient at causing DNA breakdown [ 17 ].
Lead Pb , with atomic number 82, atomic weight It has four naturally occurring isotopes with atomic weights , , and in decreasing order of abundance. Lead Pb exists in many forms in the natural sources throughout the world and is now one of the most widely and evenly distributed trace metals.
Soil and plants can be contaminated by lead from car exhaust, dust, and gases from various industrial sources. Metal pollution has a harmful effect on biological systems and does not undergo biodegradation [ 7 ].
Soil can be contaminated with Pb from several other sources such as industrial sites, from leaded fuels, old lead plumbing pipes, or even old orchard sites in production where lead arsenate is used. Lead accumulates in the upper 8 inches of the soil and is highly immobile. Contamination is long-term.
Without remedial action, high soil lead levels will never return to normal [ 20 ]. In the environment, lead is known to be toxic to plants, animals, and microorganisms. Effects are generally limited to especially contaminated areas [ 21 ].
Pb contamination in the environment exists as an insoluble form, and the toxic metals pose serious human health problem, namely, brain damage and retardation [ 5 ]. Mercury is a naturally occurring metal that is present in several forms. Metallic mercury is shiny, silver-white, odorless liquid.
Mercury combines with other elements, such as chlorine, sulfur, or oxygen, to form inorganic mercury compounds or salts, which are usually white powders or crystals. Mercury also combines with carbon to make organic mercury compounds [ 22 ]. As any other metal, mercury could occur in the soil in various forms. It dissolves as free ion or soluble complex and is nonspecifically adsorbed by binding mainly due to the electrostatic forces, chelated, and precipitated as sulphide, carbonate, hydroxide, and phosphate.
There are three soluble forms of Hg in the soil environment. A second potential route for the conversion of mercury in the soil is methylation to methyl or dimethyl mercury by anaerobic bacteria [ 24 ]. Mercury is a persistent environmental pollutant with bioaccumulation ability in fish, animals, and human beings [ 23 ]. Mercury salts and organomercury compounds are among the most poisonous substances in our environment.
The mechanism and extent of toxicity depend strongly on the type of compound and the redox state of mercury [ 25 ]. Environmental contamination due to mercury is caused by several industries, petrochemicals, minings, painting, and also by agricultural sources such as fertilizer and fungicidal sprays [ 26 ]. Some of the more common sources of mercury found throughout the environment include but may not be limited to the household bleach, acid, and caustic chemicals e.
Though mercury use in many of the above items being produced now is restricted or banned, there are still some existing, older products in use [ 22 ]. Terrestrial plants are generally insensitive to the harmful effects of mercury compounds; however, mercury is known to affect photosynthesis and oxidative metabolism by interfering with electron transport in chloroplasts and mitochondria.
Mercury also inhibits the activity of aquaporins and reduces plant water uptake [ 27 ]. Mercury and its compounds are cumulative toxins and in small quantities are hazardous to human health. The major effects of mercury poisoning manifest as neurological and renal disturbances as it can easily pass the blood-brain barrier and has effect on the brain [ 26 ]. Phytoremediation techniques have been briefly depicted in many literatures or articles.
Some definitions on phytoremediation that have been described by several researchers are listed in Table 1. Generally, according to the above researchers, phytoremediation is defined as an emerging technology using selected plants to clean up the contaminated environment from hazardous contaminant to improve the environment quality.
Figure 1 depicts the uptake mechanisms of both organics and inorganics contaminants through phytoremediation technology. For organics, it involves phytostabilization, rhizodegradation, rhizofiltration, phytodegradation, and phytovolatilization. These mechanisms related to organic contaminant property are not able to be absorbed into the plant tissue.
For inorganics, mechanisms which can be involved are phytostabilization, rhizofiltration, phytoaccumulation and phytovolatilization. The root plants exudates to stabilize, demobilize and bind the contaminants in the soil matrix, thereby reducing their bioavailability. These all are called as phytostabilization process.
Certain plant species have used to immobilize contaminants in the soil and ground water through absorption and accumulation by roots, adsorption onto roots, or precipitation within the root zone. This process is for organics and metals contaminants in soils, sediments, and sludges medium [ 29 , 31 ]. This is for metals, metalloids, radionuclides, nonmetals, and organics contaminants in soils, sediments, and sludges medium [ 29 , 31 ].
Phytovolatilization process is the plants ability to absorb and subsequently volatilize the contaminant into the atmosphere. This process is for metal contaminants in groundwater, soils, sediments, and sludges medium.
This process is for complex organic molecules that are degraded into simpler molecule contaminants in soils, sediments, sludges, and groundwater medium [ 29 , 31 ]. This process is for metals, excess nutrients, and radionuclide contaminants in groundwater, surface water, and wastewater medium [ 29 , 31 ].
A California state law Health and Safety Code section et seq. The program identifies high priority facilities and requires facilities posing significant risks to notify all exposed individuals. The Legislature passed and Governor Schwarzenegger signed AB 32, which set the greenhouse gas emissions reduction goal into law. It directed ARB to develop discrete early actions to reduce greenhouse gases while also preparing a scoping plan to identify how best to reach the limit on greenhouse gas emissions. The legislation also requires ARB to establish a demonstration program to showcase these non-toxic and non-smog forming technologies. The highest daily amount of a substance that may be consumed over a lifetime without adverse effects.
Help us continue to fight human rights abuses. Please give now to support our work. Download the full report in English. Since — when the government began monitoring deforestation in the Amazon — more than half a million square kilometers have been razed. This deforestation typically culminates in fires as the vegetation remaining after valuable trees are removed is set ablaze, often illegally.
Bioindicators are living organisms such as plants, planktons, animals, and microbes assessing the quality of water as well as an indicator of water pollution. Both, Lichens and Bryophytes are powerful Bioindicators of air quality on to handle biomonitoring and evaluate human effects (Figures 2 and 3).
Air pollution is a phenomenon by which particles solid or liquid and gases contaminate the environment. Such contamination can result in health effects on the population, which might be either chronic arising from long-term exposure , or acute due to accidents. Other effects of pollution include damage to materials e.
Atmospheric Pollution. Also referred to as particulate matter. It is produced as a result of incomplete burning of carbon-containing fuels including coal, wood, charcoal, natural gas, and fuel oil. Depending on the amount inhaled, this gas can impede coordination, worsen cardiovascular conditions, and produce fatigue, headache, weakness, confusion, disorientation, nausea, and dizziness.
Heavy metals are among the most important sorts of contaminant in the environment. Several methods already used to clean up the environment from these kinds of contaminants, but most of them are costly and difficult to get optimum results. Currently, phytoremediation is an effective and affordable technological solution used to extract or remove inactive metals and metal pollutants from contaminated soil and water. This technology is environmental friendly and potentially cost effective.
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Судя по той увлеченности, с которой молодой профессор говорил о преподавательской работе, из университета он не уйдет. Сьюзан решила не заводить деловых разговоров, чтобы не портить настроение ни ему ни. Она снова почувствовала себя школьницей. Это чувство было очень приятно, ничто не должно было его омрачить. И его ничто не омрачало. Их отношения развивались медленно и романтично: встречи украдкой, если позволяли дела, долгие прогулки по университетскому городку, чашечка капуччино у Мерлутти поздно вечером, иногда лекции и концерты. Сьюзан вдруг поняла, что стала смеяться гораздо чаще, чем раньше.
Keywords: Air Pollution, Haze, Modern Technology, Negative Impact, Islamic Perspective calamity and how important the right of humans and environmental to not be violated These pollutants affect long-term effects on people's health. But this verse shows that all living things including animals and natures that exist.